Logbook of the Ship Atkins Adams (ODHS 485)

Whaling voyage to Desolation Island and Southeastern Pacific

If by any mischance on sea or land I should loose this journal, I request any kind friend  who may find this book – to send it by some conveyance – to the United States – directed to Mrs. A. J. Phipps – or Dr. E. P. Abbe New Bedford, Massachusetts, or to Dr. Alanson  Abbe, Boston Massachusetts or to the American Consul at the nearest port – & the kindness will be gratefully acknowledged by the subscriber or by his friends who will cheerfully discharge any expense or reward  any trouble incurred in performing this request.

                  Wm A. Abbe

20 Boylston St—Boston


United States of America

                        Journal of my Whaling Cruse in ship Atkins Adams

[First Three Pages Blank]

Sunday Oct 10th 1858 – ship Atkins Adams – 3 days out at sea.

I made up my mind some two months since to go on a whaling voyage for my health.  I procured a situation on board the ship A. A. of Fair Haven  as foremast hand with the privilege of leaving at any period of the voyage.   Instead of getting my outfit at an outfitters, I had it made at home, and thus secured my comfort for the voyage.  I do not mean to imply that my comfort could not have been secured if I had applied to an outfitter, but home work is always better, as it is stronger than that made at the outfitters.  The ship was announced to sail of Wednesday the sixth of October, but the captains wife – who is on board – being sick, the ship did not sail till the next day.  On Wednesday morning I went aboard the ship with my two sisters who made up my bed in my birth – which I had previously selected – and to which I had fitted a curtain.  In the afternoon of the same day I again went aboard the ship with a party of Green hands several of whom were a little the worse for liquor.  One man opened his chest and surveying its scanty contents cursed roundly his outfitter — who had charged $75.00 for what was worth perhaps $25.00.  As soon as we reached the ship, the boys rushed for the forecastle and began to choose their berths – amidst much confusion.  I had no time [to] get acquainted with any of them, but one man I asked if he had a curtain. He answered: No.  When I told him he should have one:  What for, said he, looking at me with half drunken eyes.  Why I replied, you will want sometimes to be private, and as I shant stay on board tonight but come aboard tomorrow, I will bring you a curtain if you wish.  This made the fellow think me a shark – or outfitter – and he rather drunkenly replied I know who you are.  I contrived to convince him that he was mistaken, when he good naturedly shook hands with me, and we were all right.  The next morning with a few friends, I went aboard in the pilot boat – and soon after changing my “long togs” for a blue shirt and sailor pants I hopped at the windlass to heave up the anchor — this was a very fatiguing work and was the first event that damped my enthusiasm for the sea.  We hove the anchor, short – tripped it, and then were towed down the harbor by the “Eagles Wing.”  When the steamer left us – we set sail , and stood out to sea.  I was ordered by the pilot to go aloft and loosen the tops.  I got along very well when aloft, but one leg shook so that I had no control over it, though I was not in the least afraid.  I loosed the sail on the yard arms — within the bunt—which I ought not to have done, and received a hoarse order from the pilot to mind my self &c.  I worked very hard during the first day pulling at the ropes and working generally till I was nearly tuckered  out – By the time we had got beyond Dumpling Light – several of the green hands became decidedly sick – but I was unaffected.  We had got very nearly to the Sow and Pigs under a fine but cold breeze under topsails and jib, when the pilot put the ship about, and we stood in again to N. Bedford.  The reason of this was that not an officer had come on board, and no boat was in sight that might possibly contain them. We stood in under easy sail — a single topsail and spencer — and came to our old anchoring grounds about dusk.  My friends – My Booth (?), A. Ricketson & Mab (?) Wilson & Doc Hooper – were forced to stay aboard ship till morning.  During the day  I eat with my friends in the cabin, while my forecastle friends took their first dinner of salt horse and biscuit.  I was so fatigued that I turned in early, but the novelty of my situation and the uncomfortable air of the forecastle, increased by the breath of sixteen men, prevented me from sleeping much. I arose at about three, lit a pipe and went to the galley, where I found the ship keeper and pilot with whom I talked for an hour, smoked out my pipe, and then turned in and slept soundly till morning.

Tuesday October 11th 1858

The next day after our return early the pilot set us to work heaving up the anchor and setting the topsails – by the time we had accomplished this the captain & wife & the first & second officers came aboard the Richmond.  The third mate, T. Miller had previously come to the ship – I was rather pleased with the appearance of Mrs Wilson.  All hands after taking the officer’s chests aboard were xxx to work hoving the anchor which we had previously hove short, and soon we had taken our last hold of New England soil, and were fairly started on our whaling cruse.  We had a very fine breeze from the S.West, and the sea was quite rugged.  We stood out under the same sail as we did the day before.   About two oclock the captains friends who accompanied him down the harbor, together with the pilot, left the ship.  The sea was running so high that the pilot boat could not come along side, so the passengers were carried alongside in a whale boat.  This was a very pretty sight.  At one moment the little craft would disappear behind a wave, and again be high above the deck.  During the day we performed the usual work on board a ship bound on a long voyage, namely cat fishing the anchor. This is done so & so.  As the wind continued steady but ahead we did not loose any more sail, but wore ship several times till we stood past the light boat.  This day was full of excitement to me though I worked very hard.  The splendid breeze, the retreating coast,  the fine smell to the sea, & the novelty of my situation, all kept me from sea sickness with which nearly all the green hands were by this time affected – The lines of Coleridge came to my mind as the land slowly sunk from sight and only the bold bleak Gay Head remained to break the universal expanse of water: “Below the Kirk  below the hill below the light house top.”  I realized that I was fairly started on a long and adventurous voyage, full of danger but also full of exciting sport – The forecastle by this time began to be filled with the fumes of vomit &c,  and all this was calculated to dissipate any such thoughts as I had been indulging in – About six  all hands were called aft, & the mate & second mate chose their watches.  As the men were chosen they passed to the larboard or starboard side of the waist as they were with mates, or second mates watches.  The Captain then mounted the main hatch and looking down on the men who began to close around him addressed them substantially as follows.   You all know what we’ve come for — a sperm whaling voyage and we’ve all got to work together to get it.  All you’ve got to do is to come when you’re called and go when you’re told.  You’ll have plenty to eat and good provisions as much as you can lay your sidese to so long as you don’t eat to waste.  You must learn the ropes quick — they are few and simple.  When at the masthead sing out at everything you see if it aint bigger than a cod fish especially you green hands.  Those that raise whales will have 4 cents a barrel to be paid as soon as the oil is between decks, so that at the end of the voyage you may have had twenty, thirty, fifty or more dollars.  This was spoken slowly and cheerfully, without any coarseness, but rather paternally, as if the captain really wished all hands to work together pleasantly to attain the objects of the voyage.  All hands were then told to get their supper after which at seven oclock the starboard watch were called.  I was chosen in the mates, or larbord watch.  I was not called till eleven – when I went on deck with my watch.  One of the boatsteerers – an old man named Ellis – seeing me, called out: “here you, you’re a good man, stand here — {at the same time stationing me on the fore hatch} — and keep a good look out, & if you see any light or anything sing out.”  Thus left, I felt a kind of responsibility for we were in the track of vessels — that was pleasant.  I stood my position for 2 1/2 hours when I was ordered by the mate to go aloft with my watch and take another reef in the main topsail – We had previously reefed topsails about dusk.  I had always considered it as highly dangerous to reef topsails, not knowing anything about the matter.  But I found it decidedly pleasant & very exciting.  Perched out on the yard arm, the wind blowing almost a gale – the officers shouting from the deck, & the 3rd mate singing out from the earing: haul to leeward or to windward, all this, and the varied and elevated feeling I experienced from the novelty & danger of my position, made my first trial at reefing topsails the pleasantest part of my days duties.

Wednesday October 12th

The second  day out we had a very heavy sea, the vessel pitching and rooling under topsails and foresail and jib.  This motion increased the sickness of the greenhands, most of whom slept in their bunks.  The air in the forecastle by this time became well nigh fetid — with the fumes from the vomit and sick breath of some fourteen men.  I kept on deck as much as possible, and though it blew almost a gale, and rained occasionally, while the sea broke over all the forward part of the bark, keeping the deck continually wet, yet with my oil cloths on, I walked the portion of the deck allotted to the sailors  — between the try works in the waist just forward of the main hatch, and the bows — and enjoyed the sea, the wind and my freedom from the curse of voyaging — sea sickness.  That night I had two watches on deck, in all eight hours.  It was very cold and rainy.  With my round (?) jacket on, and over that my oil cloth jacket, I walked the deck with my pipe, and enjoyed the best “smoke” I ever had.  Talk about havana cigars richest flavors, there is nothing comparable to a clay pipe filled with common plug when a person is surrounded with wet & cold, is half chilled.  Most of the boys got under the shelter of the weather rail, and after a while I followed their example, till I was aroused by the voice of the mate calling all hands to take another reef in the topsails.  I sprang aloft, and the excitement of my work got me into a warm glow.  It was now blowing great guns, and the barke was pitching her head into the heavy seas, and rooling so that her masts swept over a quarter of a circle.  When on the yard arm near the weather earing hauling with all my strength on the sail, the wind would lift the slack of the canvas and flap it as high as my head and then beat it against the footropes on which I was standing.  This was actually dangerous, but I was unconscious of it.  I was full of excitement, though I was obliged to cling on with all my strength in notting my reef points.  I literally clung on with my teeth, for I seized a reef point between my teeth, & clung on while with my hands I hauled up the canvas onto the yard or notted my points.  But this though novel to me is every day work for a sailor.  The next day was Sunday.  On this day no work is done except that necessary to the management of the ship.  It being my watch below in the morning & and as I had been on deck eight hours the preceding night, I turned in in spite of the close air of the forecastle.  I slept soundly for two or three hours.  By this time the forecastle was filthy in the extreme.  The sick men vomited out on the floor and the vomit ran down between the chests or collected in heaps on the floor.  To this was added bits of meat and bread, onion skins, spilt coffee, tobacco spittle, forming in all a disgusting compound.  Yet strange to say with all this I could get along very well.  The sea air and sea work gives one strange courage and endurance.  Though during my watches below I often waked to listen to the straining of a sick man, or heard the gurgling fall of what he cast up; and though the smell & the air were both uncomfortable and close, yet I did not regard it as anything very disgusting & was thankful it was no worse.  Besides I had made up my mind that all this would happen and I certainly had no reason to accuse my imagination of painting to faithfully.  In the afternoon it was warm and pleasant and it being my watch on deck I sat down on the forehatch and began to teach Manuel – a Portugee boy – with whom I have formed a close friendship, for he was a clean, nice, boy and an excellent sailor.  I began to teach him his letters, and was surprised to find him very quick to learn the work. I mean to persevere until I teach him to read — then his way will be easy to a captains berth.

October 14th 1858 

A northeaster that has blown uninterrupted for 4 days has just moderated, leaving a very heavy swell.  But the sun has come out and it is warm & pleasant.  For three days and nights we have lain to under close reefed topsails, main spencer & staysail, with the helm lashed day & night.  I have enjoyed the gale though it has made the green hands sick again and brot back the forecastle to its old condition.  But I must resume my journal where I left off.  On the fourth day out, after breakfast all hands from the mate down were set to work preparing whaling gear.  Old harpoons and lances were brot to light and the greenhands set to scraping the rust off them, unreaving  the serving from the sockets, and brightening the irons.  Two or three were then set to work turning the grindstones, while each boatsteerer sharpened the irons he had chosen.  When all the irons had been brightened, cleaned and sharpened to the satisfaction of the boatsteerers, a task of some difficulty to please these capricious petty officers — all of us scraping with the backs  of our sheath knives & jack knives — the 3rd and 4th mates & one or two boatsteerers began to prepare the irons for service.  The harpoon consists of two parts — or rather of many parts: the iron, the flues, the socket, the pole, the strap.  The socket into which the pole fits is carefully served with spun yarn to prevent the strap which is spliced over it from rusting.  The pole, a heavy stick about 5 feet long & 6 inches in circumference,  of oak, is pointed at one end & fitted into the socket of the harpoon – making a weapon about 8 feet in length.  A strap of manilla rope is first spliced around the socket of the harpoon – and then stretched onto the pole by the windlass and seized fast by spun yarn.  The strap serves to bind the iron to the pole, and indeed bears all the strain laid on the harpoon, for it extends about 2/3 up the pole, with an eye splice at the end to which is bent the iron when ready for use.  The pole merely drives the iron and gives precision and force to the blow.  It bears no strain, and answers precisely in our sense like the feathers on an arrow.  The lances are prepared in the same manner,, only the pole is smaller lighter, and twice as long as that belonging to the lances [sic].  Each boat steerer chooses and fits up the harpoons & lances for his boat, and takes a pride in keeping them neat and sharp.  The second mate got up from the after hole several manilla lines and began to coil them in the tubs.  These lines are made of the best manilla, and are very carefully coiled away in a large tub.  But as these lines were new, they were full of kinks.  The mate sent up a man to bend a block to the main topmast cross tree.  One <end> of the line was then rove through the block and brot down to the deck, where 5 or six men hauled away on it to stretch it; each length as it is stretched is coiled away in one coil, and when the whole line is stretched this coil is turned on its back and again coiled.  This is repeated several times till the line is fit for coiling in the tub.  I learned this day to prepare a harpoon & lances, to make nettle to which most of the green hands were set when they had finished scraping; to make a long and short splice & an eye splice & how to stretch and coil away the Manilla lines.  It was a busy day, but the weather was delightful, with hardly any sea on, so that most of the sick men were able to be about.

Friday October 22nd 1858 — two weeks at Sea. 

The gale that has continued for six days has now moderated sufficiently for me to write.  We now have a six knot breeze – and are sailing along with a heavy swell under close reefed topsails & courses, with staysail & jib.  On the 5th day out a boil on my left knee began to trouble me very much making my leg stiff and this day I have had more or less stiffness in my leg, but I have not let this interfere with my duty & have not missed going aloft once to reef sails.  On the fifth day all hands were set to work clearing between decks getting out what tackle &c is wanted and stowing away what was not at present useful: new coiling ropes, &c, piling wood in the bows both sides of the foot of the bowsprit.  Captain came down into the forecastle and spoke to the boys, listened to their complaints, encouraged them, & told them not to let the cook impose on them.  The Captain has been down several times to see the sick men & has had gruel prepared for them, and has cheered them up.  This makes a man think very highly of the captain.  The mate also came down once to visit a sick man Frank.  This is fine conduct on the part of these officers. 

Next day

Light winds, calm in the AM.  All hands clearing out between decks and seizing on chafing gear. (?) 1st & 3rd mates lashed on the pennant to the main topmast just above the main top.  This pennant consists of two large chains about 8 or ten feet in length and is lashed on with 3 1/2 inch hemp rope.  To this pennant is attached the tackle for hoisting in the blanket piece.  There was a very fine sunset, but much finer moonlight scene.  I shall never forget the beauty of that night.  There was a gentle breeze, just fanning us on, the sea nearly quiet, and only disturbed by undulations that quietly lifted the barke and rocked her softly, while just abeam the full beaming moon lifted her horns; away on our quarter the comet arched his beautiful mane, while Mars hardly above the horizon sparkled with his fiery eye.  The reflection in the water from the moon stretched away from the ship, broadening to the horizon, tipping the waves with soft silver light.  I never saw anything comparable to the delicious scene, or felt anything in nature equal to the sense of beauty I felt while leaning over the weather rail and watching the Queen of night, surrounded by her court, receiving the dazzling ambassador from remotest space.  During this nights watch Stevens, one of our watch, having a bad cold, returned below to his bunk without acquainting the mate of his purpose, contrary to express directions given on the first night.  The mate asked me where Stevens was.  Not knowing, I answered “I dont know sir.”  The mate looked at me a moment as if suspecting me and then said – “go below and tell him I want to see him.”  I did so, & when S. came on deck the mate called him to the waist where he was standing and lectured in a kind by firm way saying: “Didnt you hear what I said the other night? “Yes,” said S, “but I had a bad cold, so I went below.”  “No matter,” said the mate “you should have come to me and told me beforehand.  Now I want you all to understand that no man belonging to my watch shall leave this deck while on duty save to light a pipe &c.  If you are sick come and tell me, & then you may go below.  I never in my life required a sick man to work and never will, but I must know what to depend on in case of a squall &c.  If half my watch are sick, I will put such sail on the ship that the other half can manage her; if all are sick I will put such sail on her that I can manage her myself.  I never leave the deck without speaking to Mr. Miller {the 3rd mate}.  Now remember this.  If you are sick go below.”  I was exceedingly pleased at this humane yet decided speech, & all the watch approved it also.  After being out two days the boat steerers were sent one by one to stand on the look out for whales at the M. top-gallant crosstrees, two hours at a time.  We hands have not yet been ordered on this duty.  Indeed for the past week the weather has been too heavy for any one to be on the lookout, it being to rough to lower even if whales were raised. 

Next day

All hands at work much the same as the day before, putting on chafing gear &c. {Explain this} In the afternoon watch I sat on the fore hatch watching Manuel making a curtain, and was much amused at his skill.  8 hours on watch that night, part of which our watch a merry set passed in singing.  In the morning watch saw a light abeam, but saw no vessel, though when day broke seen hull down in the hazy distance what appeared to be a schooner.  In this watch I conversed with the mate — a very intelligent man — about seamen the sea &c.  He spoke of Dana’s “2 Years before the mast” as unfair and discolored.  After talking some little time, as there was hardly any wind and the ship securely moving, I rather alarmed the mate by asking him if he ever reflected that all waves were formed on strict mathematical principles?  He replyed that he had not, but had tried sometimes (?) to keep them out of his ship.  I laughed in my sleeve, but dont know but that he thought I was quizzing him.  We had a very learned conversation in which I displayed more knowledge than a commodore could conveniently command.  It resulted in lending to the mate my Maury’s Sailing directions. 

The next day

It began to blow hard with a heavy sea, saw quantities of gulf weed.  We had passed the gulf & I only detected its presence by the warmth of the water.  

The next day

It blew very hard with the sea quite rugged.  Manuel & I during our turn in watch – went out on to the jib boom and with my line we caught a dolphin.  The wind was very high and as we were in the boom high in the air, the line would sway out over the water, and the bit of white rag tied to the hook would skip about over the water very much as our fishing for pickerel.  We hooked a fine fellow and screaming with delight we hauled him in, Manuel excited and swearing in Portuguese, and I shouting at the top of my voice.  We even brot all hands to the bows – and passing the fish from hand to hand he was soon landed on the deck where his skin was nearly stripped from him before I could reach the deck after casting in the line.  So that I had but little chance to witness his fabled beautiful & changing hues, as Byron says: “Parting day dies like the dolphin whom each pang imbues with a new color in his varying hues.”  I however saw some beautiful tints of silver & gold & copper.  I shall be more careful next time & observe the colors before death.  Manuel & my watch had him next morning for breakfast & fine eating he made, though they say that if his skin be not immediately taken off the flesh will poison, but I do not know how this is.  Full of excitement with this glorious sport, I was talking about him when preparing for supper. When as I took my pan from my bunk I was horrified to behold a large cockroach sitting on a piece of duff I had left over from dinner.  This was the first cockroach I had seen in forecastle and it excited my disgust. I threw away cockroach & duff & hardly ate any supper.  I was laughed at by Manuel who told me wonderful and horrible stories about their numbers, their biting toenails &c.  I concluded that the one I had seen was a stray truant, and at night was preparing to turn in when in looking into my berth I saw another monster sitting on my spoon in my pan and several brother vermin running amicably about my bunk.  This completed my disgust & alarm, & I turned in on some beds piled in the corner of the forecastle and passed a wretched night between want of sleep and dreams of cockroaches.  But I am now tolerably used to them, though the bad weather has kept them mostly from sight.  I fear the future though, when warm weather will make the fertile creatures breed.  During this day I enjoyed the heavy sea.  Our course was S. E. by E.  Saw gulf weed and some flying fish pursued by dolphins.  Cook went into the lee scuppers against the mate who put out his foot and brot up the poor cook all sliding, making him spill the contents of two buckets on the deck & a green hand was called to sweep up the results of the cooks want of sea legs.

10th day 

In the morning watch a topsail schooner was discovered on our weather quarter.  She overhauled us fast, going more to windard with her close hauled main & foresails.  We changed our course after breakfast and she crossed our fore foot.  There was a heavy sea, and she was plunging her head into the waves in gallant style.  She did not signal or run down to us; she had a black ball in the upper corner of her main sail.  Course S. E. been under double reefed topsails 3 days with a heavy wind on the quarter.  Topsail halliards parted and we unhooked the chains.  Very ugly & rainy weather in the night watches.  I relieved two men at the wheel, taking the wheel alone and unassisted. 

The next day

It blew a young gale with a heavy sea, which I admired very much.  My hands which had become literally raw in several places now began to better a little.  The constant pulling at the ropes had worn away all the skin, so that for a time I was obliged to cease from pulling, and bound up my fingers in rags.  I have been entirely unused to such labor and a students hands were too tender for such constant friction on the rough & tarred ropes.  They are now entirely well, though the skin is in many places all torn away.  In the middle watch Johnny & Manuel called all hands to the lee scuppers to heave away on a hand spike & keep the ship from rooling.  The night was dark and they succeeded in getting all the watch to the hand spike before the trick was found out.  During the Dutchmans trick at the wheel the ship gave a heavy lurch and the weather compass partly turned over and caught.  The ship had taken in over her quarter a heavy sea, & the Captain who had come on deck to observe the weather got a good ducking.  He dove for the cabin stairs, but his course was arrested by the firm grasp of the Dutchman on his arm while he bawled out:  “See here, Mister, the compass has capsized,” at the same time looking up alarmed at the rigging and then over the stern, as if he thought the ship would follow the compass’ example.  The Captain was only amused & laughed as he exclaimed: “Turn her over then,” while he proceeded down stairs.  The Dutchman gave the compass a knock that sent the card whizzing around in every direction, and evidently was returned to its upright position. 

The next day

The gale continued, a regular noreaster, sea very heavy.  Almost impossible for me to sleep, I rool so much in my bunk, but by placing my overcoats in my bunk I manage to keep tolerably steady, but still hard to sleep.  Many of the crew place spare beds in their bunk and wedge themselves in so as to prevent rooling.  The beds are for the Portugee’s we shall take on at the Cape Deverde.  Very cold night watches, no protection from the wind as the ship lay too to outride the gale.  The boatsteerers hid away, Tripp in the galley, Johnny in the steerage. Heavy seas upset the coppers in the galley.  The forecastle is very filthy as the ship rools so it is impossible nearly to clean out.  Besides many of the green hands are again sick.  My trick at two bells to stand and try to keep the wheel steady as the ship rooled, although the wheel was lashed.  Lay to under the close reefed topsails & main spencer.  In reefing topsails two men were nearly blown off from the weather yard arm, the sail bellying over their heads and then flapping out, thus very nearly hauling them over the yard.  I clung on securely.  Curly one of the men came down pale as a corpse and very much frightened.  He said he only saved himself by accident.  Spent the afternoon with my watch pricking spun yarn on the quarter deck.  Went into the weather fore rigging to admire the waves that have been raised by the gale that has now blown steady 3 days.  Still lying too under the same sails.  While the mate was taking the line and the steward was standing at the cabin stairs to pass down the numbers to the captain Raw Eggs went to him with his lamp & begged some oil but instead only got a cursing. 

Next day –

Gale moderated, heavy swell on.  Set both courses and spencer.  Course E. by S.  During my trick at the wheel, just as the captain came on dick, the ship gave 3 tremendous lurches knocking over the cooks coppers and sending poor Wheeler head foremost to the weather scuppers & then across again to the lee scuppers.  Captain yelled to me to luff & I did so, but not in time.  After our middle watch Dutchman and Shanghai eating crackers and molasses.  This they consume in prodigious quantities. 

Next day

Gale renewed and blowing hard & squally.  8 hours, 8 cold & wet hours on deck that night, the ship still lying too.  The gale has now blown for 5 days.  Cleared out and scraped the forecastle this A. M.  In the morning watch a heavy rain drove all of us hands to the quarter deck under the shelter of the house, but the wind would drive through us, and morning seemed too long in appearing as we lay down on some spare spars lashed to the starboard lash rail – or leaned over the main fifrail under the lee of the Grab game for breakfast, as we all eat together, for we have not yet eaten by watches.  Dandy funk for supper, a compound of slush hard bread and molasses. Course E. by S.  Saw quantities of weed and many Mother Careys Chickens.  The next day the gale renewed and blew harden than before raising a tremendous sea.  My trick at the wheel at 2 bells P. M., when I blistered my hands, the ship steering very wild with the wind on her quarter under close reefed topsails forecourse & staysails; rooling very much and yawing in the heavy seas struck her 4 to 6 points from her course.  The mate commended my steering – only two other men in my watch that could steer her.  In the afternoon the ship rooled so much as to take in seas over her lee rail from the mizzen to the fore rigging, and as she righted washing across her deck so as to make passing about positively dangerous.  I came near breaking my legs several times.  Raised up and lashed the starboard boat that previously would be lifted up as it hung on the davits by the heavy seas in the lee quarter.  All hands tumbling about the decks.  Reduced sail at 8 bells P. M. to close reefed main topsail, main spencer & staysail; wheel lashed; laying too; hatches lashed down; everything stowed away in expectation of an ugly night, but at sundown the wind fell so that we set the fore and main courses.  Next day a fine topgallant breeze and sail set accordingly.  Course E. S .E.  Shanghai while at the wheel was told by the captain to luff, but he put her up, when the captain started for him shouting :“luff, luff, I say, if you put her up another spoke, I’ll ram this wheel down your throat.”  Shanghai tremblingly obeyed, expecting as he afterwards said to be knocked over, and making up his mind to fall if struck at all.  He made a good deal of fun about his digesting the wheel.  The captain said or did nothing more at that time, but some after came up to S. and kindly spoke to him and showed him how to steer.

Friday Oct 22nd/58

Lat 32 Lon 47.  Fine wind on the quarter, course S. E. by S.  Saw quantities of seaweed.  Dipped my hands in a tar bucket and helped Tripp serve some rigging.  In the evening took the weather fore topsail earing and began to feel like a sailor. 

Oct 23rd/58

In the middle watch last night it was my turn at wheel and I was so sleepy that I could hardly stand – though it was very squally and difficult to keep the ship to her course.  The gale has now moderated, but a heavy sea still running, immense billows rooling towards the barke foaming their crests and reminding me as they pass to leeward of a body of cavalry retreating over a distant hill top at full speed.  Yards are braced and we are running before the wind under [under] double reefed topsails, foresail and staysail.  Heavy squall struck the ship.  In the first second dog watch all hands cutting up potatoes & pork for a “hell fire & stew” or pork stew.  Johnny as usual keeping us all merry.  Ship rooling very much and all hands in the forecastle tumbling about over the chests, and kicking the slop bucket from side to side, and smoking & telling yarns.  We are a merry set, with Johnny spinning yarns about his South Sea adventures among the Kanaka islands.  During our evening watch Allegany & Manuel caught a handspike and putting all hands to work heaving tried to keep the ship from rooling.  “Here you Dutchman” would shout Manuel “bear a hand.” “Raw Eggs come here you loafer.”  “Now pull together – there she steadies – no use – something wrong – Hullo there – you Wheeler – more to windward,” at the same time shouting to a slow craft of a fellow who shipped for a carpenter, with a solemn phiz and slow body, & who was sitting under the lee of the try works nearly amidships.  Wheeler moved about an inch, but this didn’t suit M, and snatching the handspike from the lee scuppers, he commenced to heave W. over to windward.  M is irresistably (?) comical.  Tripp was sitting on the try works, Johnny on the windlass hailing each other like Captains, asking questions about each other’s ship’s &c, when Johnny jumped down to go aboard Tripps ship, but was stopped by Manuel who was steering his ship by a handspike in the windlass & who shouted out: “Hold on Captain – must luff first,” at the same time xxx hard a lee.  He had previously when hailed to tell Johnny his course, sung out N. E. by N. half North.  Thus we spent the watch all laughing enough to split their sides & rousing from their hiding places all the loafers. 

Oct 24th 1858.  Sunday.

Top gallant breeze fine weather.  Allegany went below in the morning watch sick, but was called on deck by the mate, who lectured him quite as severely as he had previously Stevens.  John and Antoine making Dandy funk out of crackers, molasses and some lard belonging to me & which I had kept to grease my boots with.  The funk was excellent.  Lat 32.40. Bound a straw hat on deck, sitting on the windlass & sewing as Sunday is an idle day.  Afternoon I got permission from the mate to go below and write in this journal. 

Oct. 25th/58

Wind and sea gone down & very pleasant.  There was a row this morning between “Johnny come quickly” & the cook, about cooking some D. funk we had prepared in the forecastle.  There was plenty of clenching of fists and cursing each other and daring each other &c, but no blows.  The cook is lazy, & the crew are down on him.  With Miller kept busy splicing the jib & staysail sheets, while the other hands were breaking out the main hole, pouring onions on deck to dry, piling up wood &c.  Hoop skirt hung up on the house to dry.  After dinner our watch below gave M his first lesson in a spelling book and found him very willing & able to learn.  Dutchman and R. E. combing out their hair for &c — Tolerably successful. 

Oct. 26th 1858 

Almost a calm the sea gone down and very pleasant.  Course SE by E.  Taught R. Eggs to steer & though the ship was hardly moving, he began to put the wheel up & down, now to chuck (?) to the galley, & then to the cabin door.  My trick at 8 bells noon.  Captain came on deck and began to dry all his clothing, and that of his wife, for during the gale a heavy & tremendous sea came in over the stern & raging down the cabin stairs filled the Captains state room half full of water, so that when the captain got out of bed, he was up to the waist in water.  All hands clean out the fore hold.  Been on the jib boom with T. Miller seizing anew the jib & flying jib stays.  Splendid rainbow in the East at sunset, the reflection extending into the water and making more than half a circle.  Brot out in last nights watch a pot of cranberries & grapes, and our watch eat it without bread, by moonlight.  The mate would not eat much, for he said it would make his belly ache.

Oct 27th 1858 

Last night had a terrible, so to speak, experience with bed bugs – I mean cockroaches.  During the evening watch below I was awaked from sleep by the detestable vermin running over my face.  I shuddered as I awoke and leaning out from my bunk I brushed some five or six of the creatures from my hair and I could hear them strike against the floor with a thug, so large were they and so heavy.  I lay sweating in my bunk unable to sleep till my watch on deck.  My heart well nigh failed me as I contemplated the prospect before me.  But when I turned in again, so sleepy was I and so courageous that I become  by necessity, that I slept soundly till morning, unconscious of any disturbance, either of cockroaches — or horrescent  (?) reflexions — of lice.  Been at work all the morning setting up and taughtening the foretopmast & topgallant back stay.  Caught a skipjack from the martingale with Manuel.  Course SE. by E. Lat. 30.30.  Lon 34.  Almost a calm.  Under M. top-gallant sails, both topsails, foresail, staysail & jibs.  Mrs. Wilson came on deck for the first time this morning. 

Oct. 28th 1858. 

Light winds, almost dead calm, heavy swell from the westward.  Course SE  by S.  Lat 20. Lon 34.  This was yesterdays reckoning.  The hands are now all well and turning fast into sailors.  Tom Cunningham, an irish boy with a bullet head and irish wit has been sogering below for several days, so much so that my watch, to which he belongs, were nearly determined to inform the mate about him.  But a reluctance to tell tales that never deserts a sailor, saved the fellow from deserved punishment.  Cleaned out the forecastle this morning with Lanny (? )Flukes.  Talked in the morning watch with T. Miller, who commands our nigh[t] watches, while the mate remains on duty during the day.  This is owing to the sickness of the Second Mate.  Man at the mast head sung out. Sail ho – and as all are looking for whales, we were startled into excitement as the long drawn cry came from aloft.  Proved to be a large ship standing under full sails to the southwards.  She passed out of sight about 3 P. M. crossing our fore foot, her royals sinking in the glowing flashing wake of the setting sun.  This A. M. green hands saw a school of cow-fish, sung out black fish.  Captain came on deck, got excited, and sung out: “twenty dollars to the man who raises the first whale.”  I got excited by the offer, ascended the main rigging, thought I saw something moving under water but no whale.  3 sail seen during the day.  Forecastle hands are now getting acquainted, & consequently a little quarrelsome.  Have been standing for two days under easy sail — both topsails, foresail, main topgallantsail & staysail — as we are now in the north atlantic whaling ground, and are making an easy run to the Capo De Verde.   Am troubled a great deal by the checker players who keep me from sleeping during the day watches below as from dread of cockroaches.  I get but little sleep at night and I cant sleep on deck , Johnny plays so many tricks.  Taught Manuel his lesson today, and set a writing lesson for Allegany.  Been in the mizzen top with Miller bending on a small mizzen stay and unbending the large stay necessary when the barke was a ship.  Course S.S.E. Lon 31.57 Lat 29.37  Beautiful weather.  Havent reefed top sails since the nine days gale.  Mate told me this was the most rugged passage he ever made; says it wont be much worse going round the horn, only colder.  But I have rather enjoyed the bad weather. 

Oct 29th 

There were some killers also seen yesterday, and from this the captain thinks whales are around. Conversed with the mate last night during the dog watch while he was leaning over the starboard rail in the waist smoking his clay pipe.  He says that he finds very few whalemen that agree with him — indeed no two whalemen agree.  He gave me some information in regard to scud the food of the sperm & brite the food of the right whale.  He says he has seen pieces of scud vomited from a sperm whale as large as a hogshead; that he never saw a s. whale asleep, & believes they sleep under water or by night; that he never saw a s. whale underwater without he was swimming on his side, one eye up the other down & his mouth open.  That his mouth is white inside, and that the scud probably are attracted by this and swim into the mouth or attach their feelers to the teeth & the whale then eats them; that he knows no difference between a thrasher & killer; that he never saw a whale attacked by either; that he has a piece of swordfish’s sword that he pulled from the head of a whale etc. Brite  are first grayish, then brown, then red when they deposit their spawn & then disappear; that the scud is said to be the largest in the ocean, but he never saw any larger than 2 or 3 feet in length: these were like jelly or blanc mange maybe. Saw the killers yesterday, with a large dorsal fin, that Johnny come quickly calls a gaft topsail.  The Dutchman hauled up by both legs las<t> night – got mad and told the boys that if they did it again – there would be a bloody row.  A heavy dew last night.  All sail set forward of the mizzen mast – for on this mast we are now taughting the stays & shrouds & now parcelling them.  Mates says the northern whaling ground extends from 40 north – to the equator.

Saturday Oct 30th 1858. 

Almost a fight last night just as our watch was turning out, between John & Curly.  John told Curly in fun that he didn’t know what was the main clew garnet.  Curly, a hotheaded Irishman with curly black hair and an important twist to his mouth,  fired up, and called John a d—d liar.  John replyed when Curly caught him by the throat, but was immediately knocked down on Antoine’s chest.  This caused a tremendous row in words Antoine swearing in Portuguese, John damning Curly, & Curly answering both and crying that there were no men in the forecastle to see him struck so.  All of our watch hadn’t come on deck, and the 3rd mate came up and called out for his watch.  And just then Antoine pulled away the steps to make room for a fight when the 3rd mate called out:  Here you damned Portugee son of a bitch.  What are you about down there.  Antoine replaced the steps, and our watch came on deck, but leaning over the scuttle we could hear the starboard watch — to which all the fighters belonged — still wrangling & swearing.  This quarrel originated one night when the 3 fellows were sent aloft to furl the m. t. galt.sail, when Antoine cursed Curly’s awkwardness &c, when they clinched by the throat, and both came near falling from the yard arm.  Antoine says that Curly drew his knife on him, and Curly certainly talks very big about knifing &c, but I think it all talk.  Our watch is very amicable; we are all the time laughing, singing, playing tricks &c.  The starboard watch seems to contain all the bad fellows.  Our watch is composed of the Mate, 3rd mate; Tripp & Johnny, boatsteerers; Manual, Allegany, Shanghai, R. Eggs, Dutchman, T. Cunningham, Wheeler, myself — the Doctor, as I am called.  It is now pleasant weather and we have been standing night & day for 3 days under all our main & fore sails. only at night furling the flying jib & jib.  After the row John came on deck and talked with us, seeming a little afraid to turn [in] on account of Curly, who he was afraid would knife him.  Antoine is generally condemned for striking Curly when he was clinched.  I anticipate considerable difficulty [for] him in the forecastle.  I sleep now in spite of cockroaches, but know not what the future may bring forth — though I hope it wont be cockroaches. 

Sunday Oct 31st

Today there is a dead calm, the sea just undulating from the westward of the ship, lazily rooling in the swell, & the sails flapping against the rigging.  Nothing to do but read & smoke.  Taught Manuel a lesson after dinner.  Duff for dinner, which I & M. eat with quince jelly — very good so .  M & Allegany sold their duff for seven & six plugs of tobacco to R. Eggs & Charley.  Captain, mate & 3rd mate took a lunar this noon, the moon quite visible, nearly overhead.  Saw some big fish, but could not catch them; they look a little like brook trout only larger with a long pliant dorsal fin.  I have a third boil on my knee, which annoys me very much, making it difficult for me to work or go aloft.  Went out to furl the flying jib last night with Allegany, and came in by the martingale  as those behind furling the jib were not doneQuite warm.  Course S. SE.  Fell asleep on the platform to the tryworks with my head resting on Pwick Papers.  Broke out water yesterday from the fore hold, & finished setting up the mizzen rigging. 

Monday Oct-Nov 1st 1858. 

Yesterday afternoon wrote nearly the afternoon a letter to Ed.  During the first day watch read Charles Lamb’s Elia.  How fresh and joyous the dear old fellow comes to me with his pleasant quiet humors & true pathos & his relish of antiquity & his love of the tender & the beautiful & his affection for humanity .  Reading Elia on the platform to the try works, leaning against the dirty, grimy harness cask of an old whaler on a waveless sea, the winds whist, the air balmy & pleasant, while the crew are lounging around smoking, talking, or reading trash, Manuel on the windlass studying his spelling book.  I am refreshed by dear Lamb, who like an eloquent friend — or rather like his own Coleridge — talks marvously (?)  to me, discoursing right merrily & sweetly.  Tripp caught a large dolphin with my line, nearly four feet long, & weighing about twenty pounds.  We had him today for dinner.  The dying colors of this beautiful fish were only eclipsed by the dying glories of the sun, who “pillows his chin upon the western wave” with more magnificent state than I ever witnessed before.  Wrote two hours this A. M. to Ed.  This P. M. been seizing the ends of the lanyards to the main shroud, the mate entrusting the passing of the lanyards &c to me. I am getting to be quite a sailor.  A light wind has sprung up, and we are standing on the starboard tack under full sail.  Course S. S. E…  Lon 27.40 Lat 28.15.  This for yesterday.  With Tripp & Johnny practiced last night throwing the harpoon over the lee bow – Manuel made the best cast – Tripp the next.

Tuesday Nov 2nd 

A light t-glt-breeze – all sails set.  Been restowing the sail pin (?) in the afterhold.  Porpoises were seen last night, and Tripp and Manuel went on the martingale to harpoon one, but they did not again appear.  We now have duff three times a week, beans once a week, rice once a week, lobscous occasionally – stews of potatoes now quite often for the potatoes are rotting, beef & pork & hard bread at every meal.  I think we live very well indeed, better than expected.  Allegany has been patching a pair of Highland plaid trousers with some bed ticking — having ripped up a pillow for the ticking — so now he goes around with an enormous patch on his seat, extending to the front by the shortest course, presenting a singular and various appearance.  Lat 22.23.  3rd Mate last night came forward and ordered us to keep out a look out, but as no one was willing to acknowledge it as his turn, the 3rd mate got mad, swore roundly at us, told us not to cross him &c, that it was our own fault if we got into trouble with him; & then told Lanny-Flukes to go to the knight heads.  Manuel just bought 4 pounds of tobacco for an old lock of R. Eggs, who is exceedingly hard (?), to part with so much for so small consideration.

Wednesday Nov 3rd 

Course full &  by.  Head wind, furled t. glt. Sails.  Last night dog watch.  My lookout last evening watch, when I sat with Manuel on the night heads with our thick coats on, a fine wind, a little cloudy, teaching M. to spell the different sails of the ship – top, topsail, stay, staysail &c, till I compounded the words and asked him to spell “foretopmaststaysail down haul.”  I blush to relate that M. swore a little at this to him prodigious task, but he accomplished it.  He is progressing fast.  “Sail ho” this morning – off the weather beam.  Scraped my half of the forecastle this morning; Sold an old felt hat to the Dutchman for 25 long plugs tobacco.  Mate asked Charley to make an eye splice in a new hemp rope, once whole, latter 4 yarns out twice and two twice.  He couldn’t, when I took it, and was making it with my fingers when the mate called out to me and told me never to make an other splice with my fingers but always with a m. spike.

Thursday Nov 4th 1858. 

During my trick at the wheel yesterday afternoon – when steering full and by – & just as the ship had luffed up rather too near – the captain came on deck and seeing me putting the wheel up cried out:  Thats right, Abbe.  By G-d, screw her up.  About 3 P. M. while at work aloft seizing on new spanning lines to the fore t. & t.- glat back stays, Tripp sang out the long expected & prolonged: “Thar she breaches.”  The Captain while all hands were excited & aloft at the wished for cry came on deck & sung out to Tripp: “Where away?”  “Off the beam was the reply”  “How far off?” “About five miles sir”  Soon the Captain ascended to the t. glt cross trees with a glass slung around his neck.  The mate ascended the fore rigging just as Tripp leaning eagerly out from the cross trees again gave the sonorous cry: “Thar She breaches”  For some time the two officers eagerly swept the heavy sea with their glasses, but they were at length compelled reluctantly to descend without again raising their wished for game.  Tripp thus missed the $20.00 for the first whale taken.  I was as excited as if I had flushed a fair flock of quail or partridge.  In the middle night watch went to the galley for a pan of hash the Doctor had preserved for M. & stumbled over the officer of the deck, J. Miller who was lying at full length on the cook’s seat with a lame knee from a boil against which I stumbled it being dark.  Tom Miller, mistaking me for Tripp gave me a d–ing but recognizing me he[l]ped me to find what I wanted, but was unsuccessful.  Sometime afterwards I went again and found the hash which I & M eat below.  Tom the Irishman came below when we turned in, and set us aroaring by exclaming:  “The third Mate told me if I didnt learn to box the compass before I came to the wheel again, he would box me.”  Worked hard all the A.M. – breaking out water.  This is getting tedious, as we have to remove one cask more each time we break out.  The mate has just come down into the forecastle, and is making us work again after dinner hauling bords (?) from the forehold through the larboard fore and the door (?). This is unfair. We have eight hours out tonight, & have worked hard all the morning & we should have the afternoon for sleep.  It makes us all grumble.  Almost a dead calm.  On starboard tack, close hauled, under all sail excepting the main sail. We have no royals sent up yet.  Course S. W. by W. Very warm. 

Friday Nov 5th 1858. 

Yesterday morning seven molasses kegs holding about 4 quarts were taken out, and distributed to us, 4 for our watch and 3 for the starboard watch.  M & I picked out the best one for ourselves scraped and cleaned it, ready for our molasses.  Last dog watch Antoine brot out the coopers guitar, and sitting on the windlass touched the strings merrily, while Johnny & Allegany danced the Shamarita, while the cook danced a regular breakdown.  There is $50.00 bounty for a hundred barrel whale between yesterday morning and a week hence.  So all hands are on the “qui vive”.  The first blow was given this morning by 3rd mate to the Dutchman.  The third mate called to him, but he didn’t hear, and when he went aft, Miller asked him why he didnt answer.  He replyed: “I didnt hear sir,” and was going aft to scrub, when Miller caught him by the coat collar, forced him back on the cabin skylight, and then struck him on the nose drawing blood.  The Dutchman came forward shaking with emotion, his lip cut and swollen, and muttering threats of vengeance &c. when he should get Miller ashore.  The green hands are indignant, talk of all pitching on to Miller, but the old hands take it as a matter of course.

Wednesday Nov 17th 1858. 

We are now nearing the line, and meet with line weather. For two nights now near or about sundown heavy rain squalls have come up from windward.  There is plenty of sea room, so we clewed up and furled t. g. sails, flying jib and double reefed top sails, hauling up the spanker, furling g. l. sail and keeping the barke off before the wind two or three points.  Very exciting work aloft, as squall generally reaches us before we have furled t. g. sails, after reefing.  The ship lies over, the wind whistles, the ropes jerk out and creak, while we hands on the yard haul on the bunt or leach with hoarse shoutingsI like it, though it is a little disagreeable to be wet through to the skin.  Last night very heavy rain squall came up.  A large ship to windward standing on the same course as we are caught it first.  We could see her clew up her royals and stand down towards us bending (?) before the wind.   We got every thing snug but the spencer before the squall reached us, but the moment it began to rain we were drenched through & through under the house, great rain drips driven by the wind like hail stones, beating in our faces, while thunder & lightning — not very intense nor deep — added their voice and light to the scene.  Our watch had to attend to this, the starboard watch being below at supper.  We were sent below, however, they got their share, for squalls kept coming up for two hours or more — in fact till midnight — so that a change of clothes was of no avail against wet & winds.  This however warm, and we dont mind a wetting but smoke our pipes in the face of the driving rain.  Last Sunday the green hands — or rather foremast hands — began to take their mast heads.  Mine the dog watch.  Setting sun dazzling to my eyes at first, standing on fore t. g. cross trees, holding on to stays, and rocking with the mast.  Scene soon very fine.  Clouds all kinds & shapes, sea reflecting the shadows of the clouds, and glistening with the broad blush of the dying day.  3 or 4 sail around.  The green hands are again getting sick, while aloft at the mast heads.  I not afflicted.  The sun now wheels in higher circles every day – the extreme northern constellations slowly fading from view.  The days are getting sultry, thought not uncomfortable on deck, the air is sleepy and inductive of laziness, the forecastle hot, and intolerable to warm clothing or bedding, the sea itself warm, the trade winds getting more constantly vigorous, & everything indicates our approach to the blazing equatorial circle of the earth.  Breakfasted on a pork stew of dolphin — tastes like beef — very good.  My mast head this morning from sunrise till breakfast.  Now in the great southern highway of deep sea vessels, 4 in sight from mast head, one two miles off on lee beam.  We showed our colors, and she in turn displayed the dear old stars & stripes.  Sun rise very fine —  clear, a few clouds — but when these eye lids to the sun drew back, the great, magnificent eye of the lord of day flashed along the waters, bringing into clear relief the sails and hull of the distant ship.  We have been standing on larboard tack since we bore away from Brava—I now return to my narrative—I transcribe from my note book.—Friday Oct 5.  Whales and black fish cried out by Tripp.  Captain, while mate went aloft, wore ship, but soon wore back again.   We are anxious for some oil to burn.  Porpoises round the bow, one struck by Tripp, but lost.  My look out the first evening watch, very sleepy, & though near land, I could with difficulty keep awake.  Captain on deck, vigilant, ordering all hands to keep a shark [sic] look out for land; no sleeping allowed, the terrible 3rd Mate frightening away all sleep.  Land seen next morning, though to me at first invisible or undistinguishable from surrounding clouds, presenting as it did a hazy though distinct outline quite high above the horizon and looking like a fixed cloud.  All that morning out on jib boom with M. & Miller battening (?) the grips for the spritsail boom.  Land becoming more distinct, fancied I could see clusters or forests of trees, an impossibility as there was nothing but rock, mistaking the ravines for tree shadows.  About 3 1/2 turned out and went on deck, land about 4 miles off our larboard bow and the furrowed, iron face of St. Anthony, erecting several peaks some 2200 feet above the sea.  Very bold and high the entire island, volcanic, bald & barren as we saw it, seamed and crossed as if by water courses, jutting its rocky bastions abruptly into the sea.  Cap. showed me through his glasses a single spot, a little ravine where was a little green.  Towards sunset we were abreast the southern coast some two miles from shore.  Romantic to me, this sailing along the tropic African isle, sea birds wheeling around its foot, flying fish skimming the adjacent waters, we standing under full sail on starboard tack by its rocky uninviting shores.  Went out on martingale then to flying jib boom & fished for skip jacks.  but with no success.  M. now near home, Brava, from where he has been absent nine years, ever since he was 12 aet.  I talked with him out on the boom about home.  He thoughtful, I hoping he would at least catch sight of his native hills.  Wind hauled to Southard & blew on shore.  Tacked.  Strong current setting by S.West corner of island.  Nearly dead calm.  During night watch my trick at wheel, kept putting the wheel hard up or down, we tacked so often.  Strong current by shore, kept tacking every few minutes.  Now course set, wind on quarter, now main courses clewed up, wind astern.  3rd mate found Johnny asleep on platform, rated him soundly and sent him aft, telling him if he wanted to sleep to go aft & that he should have shipped as a green hand if he wanted to be forward.  This to Cap. nephew.  St. Anthony lifting its misty sides quartering on our larboard bow at daybreak.  St. Nicholas distinctly visible on our larboard bow.  Sunday Oct. 7th.  Fine wind but aheadCourse E.S.E.  Seven islands visible, but indistinct & hazy in distance.  Monday Nov. 8th.  Running along St. Jago.  After dining off salt beef & hard bread I lay down on forehatch with my pipe of plug, relishing much, soothed by the sleepy air, the gentle winds – the quiet (?) of the waters & the lazy motion of the vessel.  I lay and smoked and gazed at the coast & background of mountainous St. Jago stretching its high shores for miles along our beamStood on till abreast the west cape a little to the eastward of it, when we furled our t. g. sails & flying jib and lay too, heading a little to the eastward of Mayo, on whose beach, more sloping than that of St Jago, we could discern a few white houses.  Fine sunset, sun gilding the fleecy skirts of the clouds that rested on and mantled the summits of the peaks that rose in wild & rugged grandeur  from the Centru (?) background.  Again fine moonlight scene.  Moon & Venus resting just above the clouds, and tipping the highest peaks with their soft light.  Next morning, having drifted to leeward during the night we stood on a short distance from shore.  Thought I saw trees stretching from wooded hills, but deceived.  M attentive & soberI could see his eyes moisten when I asked him about home & what he thought his father & sisters were doing there.  He wrote a long letter home in Portugee, very fair writer.  Delicious weather, lazy waters.  Mrs Wilson sent me a loaf of cake last night by Johnny.  Johnny, M., Allegany & I eat it during the night watch. Thinking of the bold Portugee mariners who first discovered these lofty islands in their southern career of discovery.  Now running about 2 miles from the northern coast.  Very wild and grand the background, a perfect Alps, of peaks, ravines, precipitous hills, abrupt descents, and irregular jagged outlines.  One bald peak as the sun came out showing its sides, abruptly descending, grayish, with horizontal stratification of white & red.  Cocoa nuts seen in a grove in a level white beach surrounded by high hills, a delicious sight from the contrast.  Red sandstone hills visibleLight breezes while at the wheel last night.  Xxx stays,  while hard up the wheel, the wind suddenly hauled, and took us all aback. (?) The same is spoken of by Wilks in the Exploring Expedition, who by the way lay too in nearly the same spot, at nearly the same time several years ago.  The air misty, hazy, making everything indistinct.  Antoine preparing to go ashore, filling his pockets with tobacco, I taking out tobacco and putting it in my trunk to be ready to go ashore.  M. still thoughtful.  Friday Nov. 19th 1858.  Yesterday Cap. took down a boat from the house, and gave it to the 2nd Mate, so that the Cap. keeps the old starboard boat for himself.  7 sail in sight and standing home, a large Englishman.  The Portugee we took at Brava were shaved as to their heads and washed with oil soap — to remove vermin.  All hands laughing at the poor fellows.  Cap & Carpenter have been fitting up a little room just aft of the cabin stairs for Mrs. Wilson, who is unable from heat to remain in her cabin during the day time.  Mrs. Wilson came on deck yesterday, while I was at the wheel & talked a little to me. When I turning to the Cap. who stood a little behind, I suddenly asked him how I should keep her — meaning the ship; but for a moment the Cap thought I spoke about his wife – and the look he gave me was somewhat peculiar.  I soon relieved him by modifying my question.  Mem — to be careful how I talk when Cap’s wife is around, and her husband near.  Commenced to teach Allegany to read, sitting with him in the steerage. 7 sail in sight, one large ship about a mile on our weather bow, all sail set — 4 jibs, 3 royals, main staysail & topmast staysail & fore staysails, with stun sails above & below, very fine sight.  Last Wednesday Mrs Wilson came on deck while I was at the wheel & conversed with me for over an hour, laughing & talking, much to the dismay of the mate & amusement of the foremast hands who accused her of cutting out the Cap.  I had no objections so long as the Cap. didnt find fault.  After sunset, often, all hands play “Whang.O.doodle” round the windlass, or chasing each other and spanking.  Fast & terrible are some of the blows, and we are kept in a roar of laughter at the contorted faces and the rubbing with hands of the wounded parts.  I am rejoiced that the Cap has now a boat.  Hope we shall lower soon.  Caught a skipjack last night.  Had him for breakfast this morning.  My look out last night when I saw a fine thunder storm passing across our bow.  As I sat on knight heads. I could see the horizon lighted up, the lightning playing on the sails of a distant vessel, else shrouded in the storm scudWe double reefed to. sails, furled l.g. sails, & f.jib & spanker & gaff-t. sail.   I took fore lee earing with TrippRainy all our watch with little wind.  Morning watch Cap came on deck and found all hands asleep,  officer & all, boatsteerers not to be seen, only man at wheel and M. not asleep.  Cap. woke all hands by lifting one of fore hatches and letting it fall with the sleepers xxx (?), and ordered us to set g.to.sail — He evidently thought he had a vigilant crew. 

Saturday Nov 20. 

We have passed by the region of the trades and are now in the broad equatorial belt of calm.  Good wind today.  Steering full & by, about S.W.  Lowered for black fish yesterday afternoon.  Exciting pull.   Calm, several ships in sight, one smoking as if boiling oil.  Johnny grazed a fish with his iron but didn’t make fast.  I much disappointed thereat, trembling with excitement.  Glorious sport in such fine weather.  Towards evening fine sky, a long swell to sea, fish rather shy, raised by M. while M & I & Mr Goland were at work setting up fore royal shroud, sitting on l.g. yard.  Hurried down, jumped into boat — cap. boat — but used by Goland who told me to jump in.  Took no fish, but had a fine time paddling after several large fellows with our paddles like so man Indians.  Been making scrub brooms this morning. 

Sunday Nov 21st

8 hours out last night, rained most of the time.  One heavy wind squall came up — clewed up and furled l.g. sails and clewed up both courses, hauled down flying jib, braided up spencer & gaff l. sails & kept ship to wind.   Could hear squall coming over the water, poured in torrents, uncomfortable with oil clothes on all the while.   Rough a little today, fine wind, close hauled, about S.W.  Eat pickled quince & sour hard bread on forecastle hatch last night with M.  Gave Johnny a reading lesson this morning.  Steward quoting & talking latin, funny fellow.  Someone stole some oranges from me last night, some thieves in forecastle – I suspect Johnny come lately.  To continue about Cape Verde.  {From my notebook} The night after making St. Jago we lay too between St. Jago and Mayo, a penal island.  Early next morn we ran down and doubled the west cape, neared the coast, saw the background of lofty peaks quite distinctly, and as we came nearer saw Porto Praya lying in a small harbor or large cove.   The town built on a high abrupt bluff, the shore high and broken , save immediately in front of the town where is a shelving beach of blackish sand.  I spoke to Capt while at wheel night before, and obtained permission to go ashore, so expecting to go in the boat, I took out a plenty (?) of tobacco from my chest and placed it in my bunk, but the boat crew was called so suddenly that I had not time to go to my bunk, but jumped in from the mizzen rigging as the boat was lowered and seized the stroke oar.  Johnny, Antoine, Johnny come quickly M & I were the crew.  Goland steered while Cap stood up in stern sheets and conned the boat.  I was the only green hand — the others were old hands — but I managed to catch but a crab or two, and handled my oar tolerably well.  We pulled away from the old barke & left her rising & falling on the swell while she filled away and stood to windward, while we pulled away for Porto Praya.  Though my 17 foot oar demanded most of my attention, I yet found time to notice the coast as we approached it, and could see unmistakable evidence of the volcanic nature of the island.  Large masses of scoriated rock were fallen from the high bluffs, blackend and scorched, dismal, lacking everything of beauty or interest, except the geological nature of the coast and the unusual appearance of such an arid african shore.  We pulled along towards the town & found 3 brigs lying at anchor, the crews of which leaned over from their work to see our boat cut through the lazy waters.  I could see that one was a Boston vessel.  We rounded to under the stern of one, and inquired where & how to land.  We were directed to land a little to the southard of the town, and rowing on, soon came abreast the beach some 3 boat lengths from the shore.  We could see the beach lined with darkies, several of whom commenced to hullo at us & to one another, flinging out their arms and gesturing in the most excited manner.  We lay too, and the Cap gave the ships papers to a darky who waded off through the surf.  He carried it in to a Custom House officer, also a darky, better dressed & more intelligent looking than the rest, who hailed the Cap & called the name of his vessel, where from, how long out all of which being answered satisfactorily he issued us a permit to come ashore.  Waiting for a breaker, we pulled with all our might till fairly started on the breakers back, where we jumped out to our waists in the surf & assisted by a score of yelping darkies hauled the boat with the Cap. high up on the sands.  The Cap. immediately went to the Custom House, when I turned around for the first time after landing & found myself surrounded by a crowd of ragged half-dressed niggers, chattering & hailing (?) me, offering me fruit.  I was bewildered, till one curly chap rejoicing in a pair of patched breeches and in these alone, spoke to me in English & said “I trade with you, you no trade with anybody else” at the same time offering me a large orange.  I tore open the fruit & heated and thirsty from my long pull found the orange deliciously refreshing.

Monday Nov 22 1858.   

Lat. about 2. nearly on line, fresh wind today, under all sail, slight squall this morning, fine moonlight night last 4 hours out.  M tricking all hands but me & 3rd mate with cocoanut & salt water & chasing little pigs across the backs of sleepers on forehatch.  My lookout, large ship ahead, main l.g. sail halliards parted last night, sent aloft to overhaul halliards; rigging in many places unsound.  Just given M. a writing lesson.  Our grub is now unmistakably poor, our meat scantily allowed and often tainted, this latter referable to the cook, who is too lazy to clean out his soaking barrel cask.  Our bread old and wormy, which we always shake & tap on the back to knock out the worms; our molasses — a quart of which nearly we are allowed per week — is full of cockroaches & dirt.  Our rice today ill cooked & burnt; our tea & coffee unsweetened without milk, a weak infusion of the herb or berry & decidedly homeopathic, but yet refreshing in comparison with our water which is muddy, foul, stinking, and warm, reminding me of sulphurated hydrogen water, and which we try to disguise by all kinds of mixtures — with molasses, lemon or lime juice, or ginger – but through all of which the unmistakable odor & taint still come; while our occasional dish of beans — really good —  and duff — tolerable to the appetite — serve to aggravate not lessen the general badness of our fare.  I am confident that with proper management we could live decently, for I believe that good provisions <are> on board, but very little attention is paid to our comfort or our food.  Several of the old hands declare that they have never seen the like on any ship, especially so soon after leaving port.  Many are resolved to leave the first opportunity.  I really am sometimes desperately hungry, but thus far my preserves have helped me along by disguising the badness of the bread.  There is a plenty of good bread aboard, but the Cap. I suppose wants the old stuff that was put aboard for trading out of the way.  Our suppers are generally eat on deck where we are surrounded by the pigs, or rather pestered by the poor hungry brutes who will stick their nasty snouts in our pans if they are left a moment unguarded, while they run all about us, foraging on what spoil they may lay snout to.  This is delectable life, living with pigs who divide with us the attention of the officers.  I am content, for I wish to see the worst of sea life, but I could never consent to lead a sea life with such fare or conditions.  The expectation of going home in a year gives me courage the others can not feel.  Very hot in the forecastle, I writing on my chest, sitting on a keg of soap without breeches or shoes or hat, nothing on but a shirt.  Yesterday I read the “Ancient Mariner” to Allegany & Dutchman who listened to the weird tale earnestly, both thinking it a fine poem.  I read Comus & Elia — delightfully refreshing are they among this illiterate set.  Cap gave the 3 Portugee two hats, sheath & belt & a pair of suspenders this morning & thus slowly week after week they are getting what they need.  I obtained a pair of suspenders from Cap., but find them too short.  Yesterday M & I eat for dinner our meager allowance of duff, with some xxx (?) bannana’s & some pickled quinces – “the last of the Mohegans.”  Very good dinner.   Eleven sail in sight yesterday from masthead – today 14.  I cleaned the pins (?)& fitted a plug to the water bucket or keg of the starboard boat, which is the Cap’s, but which Goland now lowers, and in which I pull the stroke oar till the Cap. lowers his own boat, to which I belong.  We keep out a good lookout, the boatsteerers at the main, the foremast hands at the fore t.g. crosstrees, but these are not the latitudes for whales, though we may chance to see one.  So we sail on lazily through calm, or with spirit when breezy, but all the while doing something, at work in the rigging or on deck, or making scrub brooms, or breaking out, which must be done once a week at least or occasionally mending (?)  an iron or lance or hatchet, or doing some little job for our respective boats.  But on the whole at present scrub broom making is our principal business, the officers & boatsteerers mostly working in the rigging.  There is a decided chaffer sometimes about our brooms, every one trying to get hickory  hickory in turn being provokingly scarce & obstinately “not to be found able,” so that the fellows hide pieces of wood away & find them sometimes missing.  The forecastle is thievish, as some, I suspect Johnny more than anyone else, he is so glib in professions of honesty though once had the kindness to keep a pair of shoes for me till I missed them & asked him for them, when he had the boldness to say he found them on the floor & was keeping them till could find an owner. Crossed the line today and am now to the southard of the blazing girdle of the earth.  Fine fresh breeze and considerable sea on.  Last night we overhauled and passed a full rigged brig under full sail about a mile from us.  We could sail a point nearly nearer the wind than she could.  This is the only vessel with whose sailing we could at all compare of all we have seen.  All passing us and sinking below the horizon ahead.  Our molasses is too bad to be eatern.  When the cask was opened, the cockroaches lay two or three inches deep on the top, and it now tastes of cockroaches, smells of cockroaches, and is undoubtedly strongly treated with cockroach acid.  The starboard watch refuse to a man to eat it, for Antoine tells them they can procure better by so doing.  Our watch has not yet all determined, but I & M are resolved.  It is an old, last voyage 90 gallon cask, and I fear the Cap is resolved to make us eat it before breaking out new.  Last night our during our watch I was actually faint from want of food, and had not the steward given me a little cabin molasses sugar to cover the sourness of the bread I should have been positively suffering.  The men talk desperately about their fare.  5 casks of meat, 3 of beef, 2 of pork are allowed the whole ship, our officers & all per month & out of this the cabin takes all it wants and leaves a scant remainder for the forecastle.  We positively at some meals dont have enough meat sent down to feed 3 good eaters, and yet our watch often must make the most of it.  It is too bad, & I can find no excuse for treating men worse than so many brutes, for I verily believe some pigs ashore have cleaner, sweeter food than we of the forecastle have.  I got quite a lecture from the mate this morning for steering carelessly.  I was faint & tired with standing at the wheel, and let the ship fall off a point from her course, when the mate came aft and talked to me seriously, saying if I couldn’t steer the ship, to go forward & he would find a man to take the wheel.   I answered him I could do my duty, was able & willing &c. — this seemed to make him worse & he told me not to contradict him &c…  I am generally well treated, the only difficulty I ever have is at the wheel.  The yards are often badly braced, and for this negligence the man at the wheel is made to suffer.

Thursday Nov 25th 1858. 

Lat. 3 South.  A fine l g.breeze very fresh, but from the southard so that we are in danger of being caught in the bight of the S. American coast, so we sail full & by & by the wind as close as possible.  Last sight of north star in 5 north latitude.  Saw Magellan clouds last night.  M & I sat out our lookout’s last night on the foreyard lying down in the yard and slings and leaning against the mast it being too rough to stand on the knight heads.  I told M the story of Aladdin & the wonderful lamp, & this kept us both awake.  Fine fun this for Thanksgiving Eve as I suppose today is Thanksgiving day at home.  Our water kept getting worse, till it made the men vomit to drink it.  We caught all the rain water we could and drank it eagerly.  I was miserable night before last, and from thirst could not sleep our first watch below, but during watch on deck I went to our boat and drank a long draught from the boat keg.  Our tea & coffee are fetid, it actually stank, so foul was the water.  It turns out that the cause of all this was some duff the cook spilt in the scuttle butt, and this souring & rotting in the heated butt diseased all the water.  The cask has now been cleaned out, Tom getting in & scouring it out.  Our water is now sweet & drinkable.  But this experience taught me how dreadful must be the want of water at sea.  The men were all dispirited & some drank the tea & coffee though they immediately threw it up again.  The cook had been decidedly nasty in taking care of our meat can.  Yesterday he sent down our watches meat in an unwashed pan that had pieces off duff sticking to its bottom & did the same the night before.  The carpenter went aft to get the meat but soon came down again saying that he wasn’t going to bring foreward the meat in such a condition.  Our watch stood by him & refused to turn out till the pan was washed, but no one would go aft & speak to any officer about it till M got up without saying anything & going aft spoke to the mate who asked him why the watch didnt turn out.  The Cap. came forward to where M & the mate were talking & learning the difficulty, called out for the cook.  The cook came & denied that he had sent the meat in an unwashed pan, but M immediately before the two officers called him a d-d liar, when the cook owned up.   The Cap & mate then both d-d the cook up & down, the mate very red in the face, the Cap. violent, & the cook was ordered thereafter to wash out the pan, to carry foreward the grub, to go for the pan & wait thus on both watches.  Our watch was delighted at the success of this, their first refusal to do duty & M was called a brave fellow by all hands.  It was my turn out wheel, but I waited till I got my breakfast with the rest.  Yesterday afternoon M & I cut up a pot full of lemons & put them down in white sugar that the “old woman” sent my be Johnny.  We crushed the sugar in lemon juice, cut the lemons in their slices after paring off the yellow rind, halved the slices, laid them in layers with sugar till the pan was nearly full, then poured on more sugar, then put in some spice from my pickled quinces, then some brandy, about six tablespoons full, then as much more aquadente, then more sugar to the top, then covered the pot, my quince jelly pot, then bound the cover with lamp wicking & this with twine, then tarred this, & then covered all the top with tarred cotton cloth, and over this tied some clean cotton cloth, and our preserves were done.  We shall keep the pot for Cape Horn weather.  The cook to retaliate on our watch came down yesterday after all were turned in and poked in our slop keg for pieces of meat and searched the locker to find some evidences wherewith to convince the officers that we were wasting our meat, but he found only a few well picked jaw bones or quadrant pieces.  We tried this morning  to get up a fight between Raw Eggs & the Charger {one of the Portugee noted for his slowness} & offered the charger a shirt if he would fight.  He was willing enough, took off his jumper, rooled up his sleeves, R. E. watching meanwhile in a way to set us all a roaring, then reached out his hand to pull R. E. from his chest, when R. E. to our surprise caught him by the hand and shook hands with him, grinning the while as if all were right.  This was too much for us, & peals of unextinguishable laughter rooled through the forecastle, dismayed at which the charger mounted to his bunk while R. E. chuckled away as if he had done a clever thing.  A large ship just ahead.  Ship taking in water over her bows with the swell from the continued wind.  Gave Johnny a lesson this A. M. in steerage. 

Friday Nov 26th 1858.

About 3 south, wind S by E.  Steering full & by.  I was standing for 3 & half hours on duty this morning 2 1/2 at  masthead & the rest at wheel till dinner, the starboard watch taking 40 minutes to eat their grub.  Cap. scolded cook for not cleaning out his meat keg, it smells so foul.  Antoine went to the mate last night after his supper and complained of R. Eggs who went down into the forecastle while the starboard watch were eating andmy pen blushes to record the deed – raised a foul gale from his stern sheets.  We all laughed at Antoine for he should have taken the matter up himself & not complained to an officer.  R. Eggs is a decided nuisance in this respect.  4 hours out last night when M & I sat on foreyard on the lookout and I spun a long yarn from Arabian Nights.  M thought it wonderful.  A weak soup from beans for dinner, unsalted.  Cheese (?) quite strong, but good for supper last night.  Our beef & pork are excellent, though the quantity allowed is rather meagre.   We have got past the region of rain squalls & almost past that of variable winds.  We shall strike the S. E. trades soon.  Everything but fore l. g. sail set.  On larboard tack.  Our watches are now quite regular.  Commencing from 7 A. M. the watch on duty the night before 8 hours has now the watch below till twelve, while the other is on deck, with two wheels & two mastheads.  One from breakfast about 7 1/2 till 10 or 4 bells, the other till about half an hour after 8 bells, to give the watch below time to eat dinner.  Then the watches are changed, the morning watch goes below till 4 P. M., the other watch being on duty, with two wheels & mastheads.  From 4 till 7 are two dog watches, when all hands are on deck the first dog watch the afternoon watch below taking the one wheel & mastheadAbout 5 1/2 supper is called, when the starboard watch, which has been on duty in the afternoon goes below to supper, the larboard watch remaining on deck.  Then the starboard watch after supper comes on deck, on duty with two wheels & lookouts.  At eleven – or 6 bells – when it in turn is relieved by the starboard watch till 3 or 6 bells, & this in tun is relieved again by larboard watch till 7 A. M. with two wheels, one lookout from 2 till 5, one from 5 till daybreak, and one mast head from daybreak till the watch is relieved.  The wheels in my watch come regularly.  Having two morning wheels every other day from 5 till seven, & the next morning from after breakfast till 10, each being about 2 1/2 hours in length.  The lookouts & mastheads follow in the order of the wheels, but each being but half a day — one at night, the other during the day time — there is constant change – no man having a constant lookout or masthead.  Sometimes a mans lookout or masthead comes at the same time as his wheel does, when if a masthead, the man that follows him takes his wheel, while he goes to the masthead, for a masthead is of most consequence; but if a lookout, the following man takes the lookout, each thus exchanging their peculiar duties.  I have no night wheel, but lookouts of course. This arrangement of the watches differs somewhat from that in the merchant service, where the watches are relieved at every eight bells, and where the bells are struck every half hour, while we strike only to relieve the wheel, & 7 bells at 11 1//2 A. M.  to warn the mate to take the sun.  There was considerable confusion at first among us green hands about the order of the wheel & lookouts, no man knowing when his turn came, but we have now got all this straightenedSeveral men in our watch now use the cockroach molasses, but the starboard watch to a man refuses to eat the disgusting stuff.  With this exception our grub is now pretty good, only we cant sweeten our tea or coffee or have any sauce for our rice & duff. The previous bad grub was however enough to open my eyes to the miseries of bad provisions for the forecastle. 

Saturday Nov 27th 1858. 

Same wind holds.  Steering full & by, about S. S. W., a little rugged.  8 hours out last night.  M & I first watch, sat on foreyard while M spun yarns bout his whaling adventures.  His descriptions are graphic.  I think M a very superior fellow.  He learns to read & write surprisingly fast.  M talked about seamanship, and taught me the words of command to tack ship.  He told me of one adventure where a whale to which his boat was fast towed the boat out of sight of his ship in a dead calm, near the Gallipagos; then on being lanced the whale went down, rose to leeward and began to tow them towards the ship, untill her l. g. sails were visible; then on again being lanced, the whale stove the boat in pieces; another whale crew were in the water clinging to oars &c. for six hours before they could be picked up.  Allegany & R. Eggs have been trading, R. Eggs giving a pair of pants, boots and plaid jacket for a pair of books, pants, monkey (?) jacket, pair stockings, 2 knives, Man-o-war cape & 48 cents money.  Such trading is frequent in the forecastle.  R. Eggs got the worst of the bargain.  During our night watches the fellows manage to stow themselves away and sleep most of the watch.  In good weather the forehatch will be covered with sleepers, or the platform to the try works, or the spare spars lashed to the starboard lash rail, & when any order is given all hands start up half awake & come forward, so that there is generally plenty of swearing from the officers.  I was very dutiful at first, not sleeping at all during night watches, but I soon got in the way of stowing myself away for a nap.  I am now breaking myself of the habit, sleeping but little, and that not on deck, but sitting on main fifrail or on weather rail leaning against bow boat.  Goland dont mind this sleeping much, but when mate kept his own watch, he would come forward occasionally & rouse up all hands with his knee or foot.  It makes a man stiff & chilled to sleep on deck, & colds were at first frequent, but notwithstanding this, the fellows will sleep.  It is hard to pass away 4 hours at night on our limited ships deck.  We are not all enough sailors to spin very long yarns, and our discipline is not very rigid.  I have known fellows to sleep soundly though exposed to a pelting rain.  Went out with Dutchman to stow flying jib, made a bad stow.  Evening, Dutchman a hand, was ordered to go out to end of spritsail boom & clear f. jib sheet.  Dutchman tried it, but his heart failed him, ship pitching somewhat, & there being only the guys at end of the boom to hang on with.  D. came in & I went out & did the business.

Monday Nov 29th 1858. 

Under all sail save for spencer, fresh wind, steering full & by, about S.  Mate splicing foreshrouds, making an eye splice about the dead eye.  Yesterday morning with a painful boil on my starboard knee I had 5 hours duty, 2 1/2 at wheel & 2 1/2 masthead to which I could scarcely crawl, so lame was I.  All this very fatiguing.  Saturday after washing down deck, the mate appointed Shanghai in our watch captain of forehold, & S appointed Dutchman and me as his first & second mates.  Curly was appointed Cap. from the larboard watch.  Last night 8 hours out, the first 4 of which I spent listening to Shanghai telling yarns about his wild adventures and dissipation in Maine among the down East boys & women.  I shall never forget his story of his adventure with a green country girl in Gardner, Maine.  He acted nobly, & his true manliness in this case shining out through his wild dissipation, is the bright star of his past life.  He kept Allegany and myself awake for two hours, all three sitting on the platform to the tryworks.  S. is a fellow of talent and taste, but uncultivated & comparatively unlettered.  After this Allegany & I leaned over the gangway board, and watching the white and gleaming flakes of foam flung off from the ships side, Allegany gave me the story of his life, a wild life, a dissipated life, a dishonest life, but one full of curious interest.  A. intends to leave the ship on the other side and work his passage to California, where, he assures me, he will work hard, be industrious, temperate, principled, get together some money & then go home and become a sober good citizen.  Born & bred in western N. Y. his father left him about a thousand dollars in money, and this became his curse.  Gradually acquiring habits of drinking he soon ran through his little property.  He then commenced a life of adventure, was a year or two cabin boy aboard a Liverpool packet, where he acquired habits of theft & immorality, thieving from the forecastle for the officers and for himself.  He told me he was ordered by the 3rd mate one dark night to go forward & break into every bag in the forecastle excepting those belonging to the packet rats, to bring aft everything he could lay hands on.  He hesitated at this order, but was ordered by the mate ‘ Go along, you d-d son of a bitch, do as I tell you or you’l catch h-l.’  He complyed & his first forage resulted in his stealing an overcoat two pairs of pants & a silver watch, all of which he gave to the first mate who distributed & shared the booty among the other officers.  His accounts of the brutality aboard the packet ships are truly horrible.  By continuing this, he assures me, he kept in favor with the officers & was not ill used.  He served as porter 2 yrs aboard a north river steamer; went to Texas to assist survey a railroad; got a hundred dollars; after many adventures spent 50 of it in reaching N. Orleans, was robbed of the rest at N. Orleans.  Could find no work on any river craft, smuggled himself aboard a steamer bound up the river, was landed at the first wooding place, got on another steamer, was again landed & thus by degrees — walking on land and stealing passages,  going once for 2 days & 3 nights without any food — he arrived at Cairo, where he worked long enough to get money suf. to take him home.  He then went on a two year cruise in a N. London Elephant hunter to Hurds Island in the far distant & frozen Southern ocean.  After many adventures curious enough to found a romance, he came back having about $500, with which he went home, but contrived to spend all his money in about 3 months drinking, travelling and putting up at expensive hotels, riding & making presents.  His brother, who is in good circumstances, offered to get him a good situation, but feeling ashamed of his wild conduct he now resolves to go to the golden coast & there make his fortune.  He once killed a man in a drunken brawl, was tried, after being caught in Canada whither he had fled, 3 times, the jury disagreed 3 times & after being in jail 10 months, he was discharged.  At this time he was engaged to as he says a beautiful girl but from that time {of his discharge} he has never visited the place or seen his betrothed.  She used to visit him while he was in jail, & his account of her beauty, gentleness, & power to win him from drink is really touching.  When he came aboard he was drunk having been in that condition for about 3 weeks, but now recovered from that state he feels remorseful & resolves to get drunk no more, but I have little faith in his penitenceHe is sincere, but then he has no strength to resist.  I have promised him two dollars, while he promises to wash for me till we touch on the other side, when he means to desert ship, go into the country, remain concealed till all search is over, then get a vessel bound for Calcutta or California.  I have promised to help him, for I should like to see him reformed as there are many first rate points about A — generous, open, & gentle — & he now appears determined to do well.  It is almost amusing to hear him talk about his prospects of reform — his ambition is humble, but he seems sincere — to settle down and become a good man.  He calls himself the black sheep of his family, the other boys doing well. 

Tuesday Nov 30th/58. 

Under all sail, fresh wind, course S. by E.   At masthead this A. M. many squalls came up, ship lay over, I descended to l. mast cross trees; l. g. – sail furled, flapping against me till Dutchman & Tom came up when I showed them how to furl the sail.  Broke out good molasses for us this A. M. when we threw our cockroach molasses overboard and filled again our kegs.  Yesterday afternoon, in unparcelling & unserving the starboard foreswifter preparatory to splicing it around the dead eye we found it nearly rotted off just above the throat, & the throat seizings were so rotten that they came off in pieces.  The mate finding it impossible to splice the swifter was compelled to make an artificial splice, after failing in making a flemish eye in putting in strands & in splicing & laying up the strands.  A great deal of the rigging is very feeble & rotten. The M. l. g. sail halliards have parted twice, the fore shrouds are rotted considerably, the mizzen shrouds stays were so ill prepared that we were obliged to new serve parcel & bend on the shrouds stays to the T. masthead; the m. royal stay is too short & has been spliced with white rope, which is made fast to fore l. g. cross trees with a double turn & half hitches – very slovenly put on.  All the rigging is more or less rotten.

Wednesday Dec 1st 

Fresh wind, occasional squalls, course S by E all sails set, save fore spencer, Lat about 14 south.  Yesterday afternoon we hove overboard the cask of cockroach molasses, Cap sorry he didnt trade it at Brava.  Our grub is now good with the exception of the bread, & this is not very bad.  We have now crossed the Atlantic Ocean twice.  The day after leaving Brava all hands were mustered aft on the quarter deck, and the officers chose their boat crews, the mate commencing & choosing his bow oarsman, 2 mate following & so on, the Cap choosing last.  I was chosen in the Cap’s boat, though I would have liked to have been appointed to the mates.  We left our second officer Mr Hamilton at Porto Praya, on board a Boston brig bound home.  Mr. H was home sick, love sick having been married but a short year, and touched with the rheumatism.  I was sorry to see him, feeble, his head bound with a handkerchief, & disconsolately sitting on the quarter deck of the brig his face buried in his hands.  The Cap. gave him his rough comfort, and cheered him up, but he was very much dispirited.  Mr Miller took his place & watch the day we chose our boat crews.  Mr Goland taking the 3rd mates berth.  Both are good officers, Goland the best liked, he commands our night watches, while Miller is the better seaman though very rough & sometimes brutal in his discipline.  Our watch below this AM  S & A turned in, Tom reading in a low voice a novel to Johnny who has come down to smoke his pipe after reciting his spelling lesson to me in the steerage, M plaiting straw for a hat, R. E. reading, the Portugee turned in, while I sitting without pants or shoes on a soap keg am writing on my chest.  It is now the first day of Winter at home, & my dear friends there are muffled in thick clothing, or sitting by comfortable fires, while I am sweating in the forecastle of the A. A. – at night sometimes from the heat not lying in my bunk but sleeping bare on two chests with only a pillow beneath my head, though on deck I wrap myself in a thick coat during the night watches.  I now recline on a chest and read universal Shakespeare.  I read all the time I can spare from sleep, Shak. Mostly.   I commence Antony & Cleopatra this morning.  S. is indescribably refreshing to me, so different, so companionable is he in comparison with my other company aboard ship. 

Thursday Dec 2nd 1858. 

Winds light, almost calm, but squally with rain, course S. under all sail but f. spencer.  All hands have till Saturday to learn running rigging.  Mate yesterday afternoon took apart, or unspliced the artificial splice to fore swifter and made a new splice with hemp rope.  I do not think the mate such a prompt seaman as I did at first.  We sent down the old fore topsail yesterday afternoon & replaced it by another old sail with strong reef points, the reef points to the first sail being so rotten that it was unsafe to reef topsails on the fore l. yard.  Night before last cockroaches actually as large as mice covered the upper timbers to the forecastle during the last night dog watch.  Such enormous fellows were never before seen. 

Friday Dec 3rd 1858. 

Winds variable & squally with rain, Course S by W, Lat 15º south.  Sea very phosphorescent, especially last night when some dolphins around our bows left long glowing trains behind as they floated though the waves.  Tripp & I failed in striking one.  While eating supper last night the starboard watch double reefed topsails.  We could hear them hauling & spring aloft in a driving rain, while we were secure below.  But the wind again hauled fair and our watch had to shake out the reef during the night.  Starboard flying jib sheet parted yesterday afternoon, and jib pendant last night.  Very rotten is our rigging.  Got my pepper sauce bottle filled by the steward.  We are now again in the region of variable winds, with heavy rain squalls.  8 hours out last night with my turn at lookout.

Saturday Dec 4th 1858. 

Wind SE. squally very frequent with copious rain, Course S.S.W.  Under all sail as before.  Grampus & finback seen this morning, finback too fierce to lower for.  Broke out a pot of tomatoes, they relished finely with codfish, potatoes & slush sauce.  Kept awake last night by cook, chipps & Shanghai talking and laughing after I had turned in.  Cask of old hard bread all gone.  Rejoicing thereat among the foremast hands.  Have reason to think the mate a great blower & boaster.  Think him in some respects an ass. 

Sunday Dec 5th 1858. 

Lat about 23º south.  Course S.S.W.  Winds light, with squalls.  Under all sail as before on larboard tack.  Broke out yesterday afternoon a cask of fine crisp bread, the best as all declare they have ever seen, a fact corroborated by all hands munching, munching continually at masthead lookout or wheel.  Washed and shaved this morning, with old brown Windsor & consequently feel finely.  I find that I have but little time to write a detailed & finished account of my visit to St Jago & Brava.  I shall therefore merely transcribe from my notebook what hints I put down.  I refer to the latter part of this book further hints.  Read Elia this afternoon on windlass. This & Shakespeare & Milton are mostly all I read.  I now [read] dear Shakespeare every day, finding in him continual entertainment without any base alloy of satiety, a food perpetually tempting, a fruit constantly sweet and luscious, a near friend never faithless, but always more than companionable, and I know him to be “Supreme & Universal Shakespeare.”  Mrs Wilson sent me this noon a bottle of mustard, some cake and a pot of grape preserves.  She is very thoughtful of such kind remembrances of home comforts. 

Tuesday Dec 7th. 

Crusing off & on for whales, about 23º South.  Last Sunday afternoon about 5 o’clock Old Ellis sang out from the masthead “Thar blows.”  “Thar blows.  The Cap. & mate and a dozen hands sprang into the main & fore rigging, the Cap & mate with their glasses.  Soon crys of “Thar blows” & “Thar she blows” came from all parts of the ship, from the long cry of the old whaleman Ellis to the imitating crys of the green hands, and a school of sperm whales were distinctly visible from off deck, spouting their fountain of foam off our lee beam and bow.  Standing on the lee top rail in the waist I saw several spouts, 3 at one time.  The spouts were not so high as I had expected, averaging about 6 or 8 {corrected from 10 or twelve} feet from the surface of the sea.  The Cap after satisfying himself that whales were near came down & rapid orders were issued to tack ship.  We all sprung to the braces & braced round the yards with a will, hauled up the mainsail & fore sail, and braided up the spanker.  “Stand by to lower” was then sung out, and manning the falls we raised our boats from off the cranes, swung the cranes clear, and first the mates boat, then the 2nd mates boat, and lastly the 3rd mates boat were successively lowered.  I pulled stroke in the starboard boat, and when we pulled around the old ships stern we could see the mate & 2nd mate pulling away, a little off the wind.  We followed, the mates boat leading, on his starboard quarter the 2nd mate where we were straining every muscle on his larboard quarter.  Our boat soon passed the second mate and we were not long in pulling in the mates wake.  It was near sunset, the sun going to his rozy bed, in full glory, the west all golden, a light breeze on the water, a fine swell to the sea, the old bark slowly raising her head and then lazily pitching on the waves, as we, cheered on by our mate, were pulling away on this lovely sabbath evening, in the mid Atlantic ocean.  We pulled about two miles to windward, spouts constantly seen, when the mate set sail, hauled a little to leeward, peaked his oars and stood for a solitary spout.  We followed his example, & soon saw the 2nd mate do the same.  It was now exciting, the sun quite down & night drawing on apace fast the barke away to leeward and the 3 boats jumping along in chase of the sea monster.  It was not long before we saw the mate close on a whale and his boat steerer standing with his iron, but our excitement was dashed as we saw the mates boat shoot over the spot where the whale had just spouted, and then quickly tack, as if to correct a mistake.  Our officer Goland cried out that the whale had gone down as the mate passed over him, so we eased off our sheet, and lay too, rooling on the sea, waiting for the next movements of the mate, as our officer could see no more spouts.  The mate lay too for about 15 minutes, but as it was growing dark, & there was no moon, he soon pulled away for the ship, and as we lay too waiting for him to hail us, he came down in fine style, his boat bending to the freshening wind, and throwing the spray from either bow as the sheer head cut through the water, and as he passed hailed us: “This will do for tonight Mr Goland.  I passed right over that fellow, just too late” and his boat shot off in the evening gloom.  We tacked and stood for the ship.  Johnny our boat steerer & Antoine constantly raising spouts, but it was too dark to follow them.  We ran down to the ship in short time our little craft fairly jumping from wave to wave and trembling all over as she rose & fell on the heavy sea.  Our two or three miles were soon passed over, and we rounded under the stern of the barke to our starboard quarters just as the mate was hoisting his boat on to the cranes.  The 2nd mate soon came alongside, and all 3 boats were safely lashed in their places.  I[t] proved that the mate had run over a cow whale with her calf by her, both being distinctly seen as the boat dashed over their heads.  M says it was the mates fault, and that he should have ordered Tripp to dart when there was fine chance, but of this I can not judge.  The 2nd mate was within 2 or 3 darts of some 3 whales — cows — but they went down before he could strike.  M & all the Portugee were angry, swearing loudly and talking big, because T. Miller struck one of them, a boy who pulled his stroke, and who could not understand any orders, being out from Brava only a month.  Charley, a bright boy, was crying bitterly because he had been struck, while his friends, unattentive to the wranglings of the others about their boats speed, &c, were denouncing in violent terms the ship & its officers and vowing to whip Miller if they caught him ashore, or to leave the ship at the first port.  So unnecessary is violence from an officer, especially in this case, and so dangerous its effects on good feeling & consequent good behavior, from the crew towards the officers.  Miller seemed aware of this, for calling Charley to him when it was dark, he gave him a jumper & hat as a kind of satisfaction for the blow.  This was right, but then Miller should not be so violent.  The next day he kicked Curly in the face because his rowing did not suit him.

Wednesday Dec 8th 1858. 

Course SSW.  Wind on the quarter, Fine wind, all sail set but mizzen sails & main sail.  Been at work on fore rigging scraping & laying up the yarns to the eye, officers in the shrouds.  The yarns are very rotten.  Caught all the Portugee save John with mustard.  They all took the condiment and caused Me & M to roar with laughter.  Orders have been given to the officer of our watch to prevent Tom and R. Eggs from sleeping on deck during night watches, as the practice of sleeping thus was injuring their eye sight.  It is very difficult to keep from sleeping during our night watches, though it is quite cold even in this warm weather.  Crabs are abundant in the forecastle. 

Saturday Dec 11th 1858. 

Course S. W.  Wind free,  Lat about 35º south.  8 hours out.  Rained all night, oil clothes kept me tolerably dry.  Tom had the first turn out wheel, and when his trick was nearly out, Mr Goland found him asleep or nodding over the wheel.  He went up to  him and told him in rather loud language to mind what he was about, at the same time slapping him aside the face.  Goland then came forward and spoke to us, telling us that Tom had been asleep, asking what he did in the watches below, and saying that he didnt want to have a row with any one, but that he would if anyone imposed on him so.  The Cap, hearing the noise came on deck and ordered Tom to stand at the wheel another two hours, and to stand 4 hours every night till further orders.  Tom stood the watch out, and was ordered by Goland to take the turn out wheel in the morning watch, and stand another 4 hours.  Poor Tom could hardly stand when he was relieved, so severe was his punishment.  8 hours at the wheel being worse than so many hours of walking.  He was found by Allegany asleep twice during this period, but luckily for him he was not caught by any of the officers.  Tom threats big, but he is a regular Irishman, talking a broad brogue, with an Irishman’s insensibility to hard usage.  He has kept our watch awake several times by his atonal (?) singing and he meets with little sympathy from his watch mates.  During our many watches we were set to work cleaning out from the main hold a mess of rotten potatoes, or muck, in a pelting rain, the worst job I ever attempted, the mass stinking with the most detestable of odors.   Also cutting up and cleaning up a mass of rotten onions, on deck fouling our clothing and impressing our hands with an irradical smell.  M tells me he shall leave at Tuckawano, even if he is made a boat steerer, and try the merchant service long enough to get together 4 or 5 hundred dollars & then forsake the sea and settle in N. Bedford.  He wants me to go with him to China, but I think I shall leave for home as soon as I can, consistently with my plan.  The next day after our Sunday pull for whales, after laying too all night, early in our morning watch – “Thar she blows” was repeatedly sung out from the masthead.   The Cap came on deck, ascended the rigging, saw the whales, a large school, and ordered breakfast immediately, at the same time directing the mate to tack ship & steer to windward for the whales.  We all hurried through our meal and waited the orders to lower, but we continued to stand on for over an hour before these orders came, all hands meantime looking out from all quarters of the ship, and the knowing ones calculating the number & size of the prey, or game.  At last we again tacked ship, and lowered away in the usual order the mate first &c.  Our boat being last was some 4 ships lengths astern the 2nd mates boat as we shot around the bow of the ship, while the mates boat was twice or thrice that distance ahead of the 2nd mate.  We lay too our oars with such a will that we soon passed the 2nd mate and after pulling about 3 miles came up nearly abreast the mate.  Goland said he never saw green hands that could pull as we did to windward and we slacked up a little, it not being proper for our officer to pass the mate, though we might have found it a hard job to do, the mates crew pulling with all their strength when they saw us so near.  The whales were now running dead to windward, and we following in the face of a hard sea & wind, gaining a very little on the game. It was unmistakably hard work, and Goland cheered us with the news that there was a barrel of rum in the afterhold waiting for us and a whale.  This brot us down again to our muscle, and we dashed over the waves in fine style, though after all it was heavy work.  We pulled in this way for about 12 miles, the ship hull down and quite invisible, the mate just ahead, rising and sinking on the heavy sea, the 2nd mate away astern nearly half a mile, and occasionally disappearing in the trough of the sea, we pulling steadily a long stroke, Goland constantly crying out “Thar blows” in a low tone and urging us on; and all of us active as hounds on the track of our immense game.  When the mates boat came within about 4 ships lengths of the whales the whales caught sight of us then got gallied  by the noise of the boats & oars, & started afresh toward windward, plunging about making white water and almost immediately leaving us all a long way astern.  The mate now hauled his wind, tacked and came down towards us heading for us, saying as he passed us as we lay too, that it was no use, the whales were gallied and going like the devil to windward & directing us to follow him to the ship.  We did so, sailing before the wind with peaked oars, eating hard bread & talking & laughing, reclining at our ease after our long pull.  We were passed by the 2nd mate who had come up while we lay too, and who had a large sail, while we had but a small one.  The mate & second mate then commenced to race for the ship, the mate setting & hauling down a gaff topsail to try the speed of his boat.  After resting a while we took our oars and pulled aboard, disappointed at our failure, but on the whole not sorry that we had pulled as we had.  The mate said the whales were gallied first by the ship & that therefore they went to windward.  There were about 20 in the school, a vast prize could we have taken them all.  We now stowed our boats, and tacking ship again stood on our course, oilless as before.  This is whaling. Steering full & by S. W.  Fine wind but quite cold.  All sail set but spencer & f. l. g. sail.  Very cold night watch.  Lat 32 South, on River Platt ground.  Poor Tom caught it again this morning not hearing the order to round (?) in the m. brace.  The “Irishman” was called for by the mate, & Tom came running aft pursued by 3rd mate, who tried to kick him, but couldnt get his foot within two feet of Toms large seat of honor.  Tom escaped him only to fall into the hands of the mate who collared him and shook him roundly at the same time indulging in one of his peculiar harangues that was more amusing to bystanders than the poor subject that tremblingly endured it.   The mate told him he would “shirt him before three months are up,” a new slang word, but rather forcible in its meaning.  Yesterday traded my old coat & pair of thin pants for a first rate jacket — with John.  Only five in our watch that now take wheels.  M. supplying Johnny place at the M. masthead, Johnny keeping below till he gets well by order of the Old Man.  R. Eggs takes no wheels on account of his eyesight, but together with our two Portugee –“the tailor” & “Santa Anna” — takes all the lookouts.  This gives each of us a wheel each day, while before our wheels were stationary, but now they rotate, a better arrangement to my mind.  Tom has taken no 4 hours trick since the other night, but has the pleasure of knowing that he will do so the first time he is caught asleep on deck.  Last Thursday all hands were kept on deck all day to break out & restow the between decks, a hard days work.  We are now getting into cold weather and warm clothing is in demand.  Gave Johnny a lesson this morning.  Opened my pot of lemons & found them capital. 

Tuesday Dec 14th

Lat 39º south, wind free & astern, under all sail but f. t. g. sail & spencers & jibs; heavy sea, warm & pleasant, though at the masthead this AM it was very cold, blowing very hard & coldly.  We are now to the southard of the R. Platt, having seen only a rain storm that was cold and uncomfortable.  We are now preparing for the Horn.  I put on flannels last night.  But little to do yesterday, a little work in the rigging & splicing &c on deck.  This AM been at work reeving new laniards to the fore l. g. backstays.  The mate was as a she bear, & as snappish.  Santa Anna nearly let go the f. l. sail halliards this AM, but the Cap saw him in time to stop him.  Quite cold on deck last night, most of the hands going to sleep in the lee of the try works, but I kept awake walking, smoking, & talking with Allegany about his elephant hunting.  He gave me a very minute description of the whole voyage — of Desolation, Hurds  Island, McDonald Rock, of Shag’s rock; of the ducks, penguins pods of elephants – bulls, cows & pups; pupping cow season, young bull season, March bull season, round (?) cow season, resting elephant season; of the several beaches, of the pods of cows, of the old bulls & beach masters, of lancing & shooting them, their appearance when swimming, when on the beach;  the manner of stripping the blubber, of putting it in casks; of rafting, of life on the beach, whisky 3 times a day, living on ducks & young penguins.  Hurds island 150 miles in cir, Desolation about 300, & distant due south from each other about 375 miles; of Cap Rogers sailing in a large schooner for an unknown island supposed to lie to the N by E of Hurds island; of anchoring the ship, stem & stern; of the two tenders, of rafting through the surf; of the beaches & icebergs, one 4500 feet high, its top seen only on a very fair day, heavy winds from the north, snowing & raining in summer; filling ship, in 2 years 4200 bbls; 2 or 3 elephants in a pod, kill them all, no day passing without making 20 bbls, some days over a hundred; life in shanty fine – smoking, reading talking spinning yarns dancing or sleeping; very exciting & pleasant work save the rafting through the surf, gangs on different beaches, one group aboard ship to try out; description of the rafts, &c  Jack gives me graphic descriptions, & it is like listening to a fine romance, or like reading Dr. Karns travels in the frozen north.  He promises to tell me more tonight. 

Wednesday Dec 15th

Lat about 36, wind free, heavy sea, a little to the southard of the R. Platt.  Heavy rain this AM, pouring down in torrents.  Spent first night watch in spinning a yarn to M sitting on an empty try pot with a board cover, weaving together the fairy story of the “Sleeping Beauty” and Scotts fine description of the “Joyous passage of arms at Ashby” and the subsequent assault of “Font de Boeuf” Castle.  I fear I did but poor justice to lovely unfortunate Rebecca, whom I transformed into the Sleeping Beauty.  All hands gathered around us Tripp & all, and I kept their attention till my voice gave out after an hour & 3/4 talking.  Poor Tompson just recovering from the cut on his leg was sent to the galley to assist the cook who had a sore finger.  Tompson waxed fat & active, performing his slushy duties with a most ludicrous important air, the butt of all hands.  Even the cook making fun of his assistant till T disgusted resigned & turned to his foremast duties, ignorant of rigging & deck work, tenfold more a butt.  Even the cook cut him for going to the galley this AM, to get an extra supply for his enormous appetite.  He was sent back empty by the ungrateful Doctor.  He came forward whistling vacantly, hands in pocket, forlorn & evidently chagrined at the ingratitude of friends.  Yesterday afternoon just after they had finished new reeving & lengthening a new laniard to the fore starboard l. g. backstay, the stay parted with a snap like a gun shot, breaking square off as if it had been cut.  So rotten was it.  It was my turn at wheel at 8 bells and as the stay must be spliced & set up & water broke out, I stood at the wheel for 3 1/2 hours, very much fatigued by the severe and prolonged duty, the ship rooling off & on so as to keep me very busy.  Old woman spoke to me while at the wheel & asked about Johnny progress in reading.  The Cap & old woman walked up & down quarter deck, Cap pointing out rigging, she a very girl laughing & chatting, he an awkward chap in love tagging after her.  Verily this woman hath cast her gentle but strong net of fascination around this rough Triton till he hath become hopelessly entangled in the invisible love toils.  They are very fond of each other.  P. M.  I had finished writing the above and was lying on my chest reading “Winters Tale,” all my watch turned in & I alone with Shakespeare, when I heard the watch on deck taking in sail, Miller swearing as usual, the rain pouring down in torrents dripping down the scuttle hatch, and the wind roaring like wild.  I went to the f stairs and looking on deck saw the watch clewing up both courses & t. g. sail & hauling away on the topsail reef tackles.  I went back to my reading, congratulating myself on my comfortable quarters, & had just got absorbed in the betrothal of Perdita & Florizel,  when I heard the shrill noise of the mate singing out at the hatchway:  “L. watch ahoy-y all hands turn out to shorten sail.”  I sprang for my oils, and sprang on deck.  M & I the first out were ordered to furl the M t. g. sail.  We sprang aloft, where we found it blowing a gale, the ship heeling over to port and all the sail flapping and shaking like thunder.  Men were on the M. l. sail yard reefing as we passed to our loftier station where we found the wet l. g. sail shaking & bellying out to leeward .  We took hold, but found that we could hardly manage the sail, the wind nearly blowing us off the yard & the sleet cutting us like hail as it was driven past by the fury of the wind.  We worked till I was exhausted, but we made the sail fast, getting wet through & through.  We then came down, found the deck in confusion, and the ship laboring in a heavy sea that was every moment raising higher, the spoon drift sweeping like smoke along the face of the dark angry waters while seas were sweeping over the decks every now and then.  I was ordered onto the foreyard, after we had hauled in the braces, and helped stow the fore sail.  This was a long job the 2nd mate at the bunt, I out on the weather yard arm.  We furled snug and descending to the deck began to turn the boats on end on the davits & securely lash them.  A very heavy sea was by this time raised, and as the ship rooled she would ship heavy seas that swept the decks.  I sprang about here & there, treading on Millers toes & knocking myself in the head with an oar till the mate sang out to me to keep cool, that I was excited as the devil.  I kept cool enough, with a cold rain wetting me to the skin and did my duties well. We reduced sail to a close reefed M. l. sail & staysail, & lay too.  We then set the M. spencer, but in hauling aft the sheet, it parted, hit me clopped on a watch tackle and hauled home It was now blowing furiously, drifting the ship bodily & perceptibly to leeward & bowing her till her lee rail was even with the water.  We had difficulty shortening sail, the wind was so high & the rain so driving.  I did not mind either but enjoyed the whole scene & labor.  We cleared the decks, put every thing below, lashed spars & oars, batten lashed down the hatches, made everything snug, & were then ordered to go below & change our clothing.  I was standing by the scuttle hatch when Beauty  one of the Portugee in passing to the hatchway slipped as the ship heavily rooled & falling flat on the deck put his elbow out of joint.  I raised him up, passed him below the poor fellow crying, & pointing to his arm.  We striped (?) his arm, found his elbow dislocated.  I spoke to Goland who said it was good enough for him, but went below & saw him & then carried him aft to the Cap, who set the joint & then the poor fellow was undressed & turned in to his bunk.  This accident must make the little fellow well disgusted with sea life & make him heartily long for, to him pleasant sunny Brava with its oranges & bananas & dark eyed maidens & its hot sands, to him not uncomfortable. 

Thursday Dec 16th. 

Wind light, almost a calm, a light swell. Been restowing main hold with Tripp.  Under all sail but f. l. gallant.  After we had changed our clothes yesterday, & while our watch was eating dinner, Miller came to the scuttle hatch and sung out “Where is Antoine?”  A who had turned in the day before sick with a pain in his chest & a severe cold, replyed “here sir” when Miller asked him what he was doing below, “Sick Sir, Very sick Sir.”  “Come here to the hatch,” cried Miller.  Antoine with difficulty crawled out of his chest and walked to the foot of the steps at the top of which Miller was standing.  Miller as soon as he saw A. began to very passionately & brutally abuse A. saying: You d–d Portugee son of a bitch, what are you about — I’ll send your d–d lousy soul to Hell.  I’ve a mind to thrash you where you are.  What did you turn in for without telling me of it or sending me word.   God knows I wouldn’t keep you or any other on deck when he’s sick, but Ill raise hell with you if you impose on me this way.  I’ll give you a d–d thrashing tomorrow. I’ve a mind to do so now.   Come up here, Come up here; & as A. slowly ascended the steps with a Yes sir in reply, Miller kicked him in the face, and as A. turned his head away with “O, dont Sir” with a feeble voice, Miller caught him by the hair, pulled him on deck & struck him in the face with his clenched fist, at the same time talking loud and crying out with his bull voice: “Ill teach you to go below without letting me know.  I’ll have you understand that while I’m aboard ship you’ve got to do as I tell you.  When you get me ashore you may lick me if you can, but aboard ship you got to mind me.  Do you hear there below, all of you my watch.”  This was addressed to the watch below who were sitting waiting for us to finish dinner.  “Yes sir, Yes sir” was replyed by several voices.  When Miller again turned to A and said:  “If you werent sick I’d thrash you where you stand.  I know you’re sick, I see it in your eyes.  Go below & mind now dont do this again.” Below there my watch, if any of you are sick come to me, but dont turn in without letting me know.  Now mind.  Do you hear then?”  “Yes Sir” was answered when Miller walked aft, & A came down perfectly convulsed with passion, vowing he would leave the ship, would refuse duty & talking so wildly that I could not understand/hear what he said.  Both M. and A were to blame, A for not speaking to his officer, though he was undoubtedly very sick, Miller for being so brutal to a sick man.  He’s no man to strike a sick fellow with his foot & clenched fist.  Antoine told me that he found some of his hair pulled out by the roots.  After dinner, the gale moderating, we wore ship, and stood again on the larboard tack.  I was at the wheel, when the mate wore the ship with 2 close reefed m. l. sails.  Men were sent aloft to refurl the l. g. sails, two reefs were shaken out of the m. l. sail, one out of the f. t. sail, the foresail was set & with this sail we continued all night steering full & by, the wind moderating, the sky clearing up, the setting sun pouring his full glories on the wild sea, giving a splendid effect, the ship rooling a good deal but comparatively dry & all hands in good humor at the cessation of the gale.  I & Tripp & Mr Goland tried with my line to catch a goony, but the ship was going to fast.  Numbers of these large birds, together with boobies have kept company with ship for the last few days, during the gale flying into the very face of the wind.  They are very interesting to me.  Johnny gave me a “Portugee man o’ war” this morning, a kind of fish, round, with a thin sail extending across its back. 

Friday Dec 17th. 

Course S.W. by W.  Dead calm all last night, wind freshening this AM.  Under full sail, sea smooth.  During first night watch, while the night was beautiful, a full moon, the winds whist warm & pleasant, M. Tripp, Dutchman & I went aloft to furl M. t. g. sail to keep it from flapping.  So many went up simply to have fun, & M kept us roaring by his grotesque orders.  We all came down by the back & fore & aft stays.  We then with Goland kept awake laughing & talking & having a right merry time.  While at the mast head yesterday afternoon I saw a school of grampus’es off the lee bow, & not knowing what they were, I waited not knowing whether they were spouting or not, but at last I sung out – “Thar blows, Thar blows” – till the mate hailed me, asking what I saw.  I sung out in reply.  “I dont know Sir – Something that blows.”  Tripp at the M. mast head called out that they were grampuses, whereat I could hear them laugh on deck.  I did perfectly right in singing out, but they rather make fun of such crys, grampuses being impossible to be caught, as they go down & stay as long as they please, & are moreover very wild, sinking even after they are shot or are killed.  When I came down M kept poking fun at me declaring that I had told the mate that I saw something white.  Been at work this A.M. watch splicing in a block to the f. jib pendant, and worming & serving.   I made rather slow work of it, but managed to satisfy the mate.

Saturday Dec 18th 1858. 

Wind fresh, steering full and by, about S.W. by S.  Sea with a long swell, sky clear, quite pleasant & warm.  Under usual sails, except f. l. g. sail.  At mast head this AM I raised a large turtle sleeping on the water.  He passed under our bow, woke up and swam away to windward.  Cod fish for dinner with slush for sauce.  Shanghai got another damning from the mate.  S is getting disgusted with such lectures, and begins to think that the mate talks like a fighting man.  I on the contrary am again getting in the mates good graces, but I have to be smart & very careful to do so.  He is learning teaching me many excellent lessons, making me attentive, watchful & active.  Been at work seizing on chafing gear to S. fore shrouds & back stays, putting on old lanyards.  Large birds flying about ship with an immense spread of pinions.  Saw one light in water and wash himself just like a duck. 

Sunday Dec 19th 

Lat about 38º South, wind fresh during night but abating this morning, now clear and warm with little sea.  Under same sail.  Course S.W.  Early this AM. “Thar blows” was sung out from both mast heats, repeatedly “Thar blows, thar blows” ahead on either bow.  The Cap. got up & came on deck in his shirt sleeves, ordered me to call all hands.  I called all hands to turn out to man the boats.  We hauled back the main yard, got the lines into the boats from which they had been removed during the gale, and were all ready to lower, when the “Old Man” who had ascended the weather fore rigging with his glass sung out that they were not sperm whale, but fin backs, and ordered the mate to board the main tack or stand on our course again.  They are distinguishable from sperm whales by their higher spout and straight heavy spout.  They sink when killed, and are very wild making but little oil.  The watch then went below while I shaved & washed & then went down into the forecastle to read.  When our grub comes down there is generally a rush made for it by the watch.  Last night 4 or 5 of us surrounded the steps waiting for the Doctor to pass down the cod fish hash.  Shanghai & Happy Jack on either side, Dutchman afore & I abaft the steps, while Tom was wedging in behind me, & R. Eggs waiting behind the Dutchman for his share of the plunder.  As soon as the pan made its appearance & the doctor sang out “Under,” the grub was seized by us, each one dipping in his spoon, and working quick.  It is wonderful how soon the pan was emptied.  The Carpenter — Chipps — coming a little late found the hash almost all gone & several spoons yet at work attacking the easy citadel, whereat Chipps waxing wrathy capsized the pan & left R. Eggs swearing at him for covering his chest with such a mess.  This is all owing to the want of any arrangements for division, or any regularity.  No man wishes to divide for the rest, for he is sure by so doing to get the worst share.  Happy Jack assumed the office for a while, but soon got disgusted with his gratuitous labors.  He still divides our duff, but this is easily divided.  This is our everyday custom, though often H. Jack divides out our meat.  Very ludicrous scenes often occur, as when Shanghai comes down too late & finds no grub.  He will pass from pan to pan and levy contributions from their unwilling owners, never minding their growling but working away till he gets enough.  We are now near land, the water changing distinctly its tints of blue to a muddier or deeper hue. 

Tuesday Dec 21st 1858. 

Under double reefed topsails – staysail, M. spencer, foresail & spanker.  Blowing hard from the Southard, steering full & by about E.S.E.  Heavy swell on, sky cloudy, cold & unpleasant.  Thick boots & clothing are now in demand.  Yesterday A.M. on going on deck our watch found it raining a little, but not very windy.  Soon however the Cap. came rushing on deck saying that the barometer had fallen to 20º, when we went to work shortening sail.  I & Happy Jack were sent up to that everlasting m. t. g. sail.  We worked till nigh spent, but it was no use.  It had begun to blow & rain hard, the sail was stiff, the buntline got jammed in the block, and we could not haul up our bunt till the mate sent up R. Eggs to help us, when we managed to complete the furl.  We then went on to the m. l. sail yard & double reefed that sail, then the fore topsail we double reefed.  I let go the f. t. sail halliards by the run, mistaking the mates order. But luckily no harm ensued.  We then furled the foresail, spanker & jibs, & were now under double reefed topsails & staysail only, the wind blowing a gale from the S.W., & the rain driving like hail.  We turned the waist & bow boats on their sides & lashed them, raised the cranes of the larboard & starboard boats, stowed away & lashed all the oars, boat sails &c., put the porkers in the forehold, lashed down the hatches and were ready for laying too, which we now did on the starboard tack.  It being now my turn at the wheel, I changed my wet clothes & went to the wheel.  It now became clear, the clouds breaking away & the sun coming out & gilding the outragious waters.  It lulled for about half an hour, when with a clear sky it began to blow harder than ever, & the watch now close reefed the m. l. sail, furled the f. topsails, set the m. spencer, & with this sail lay too, after weaving ship on the larboard tack.  I at the wheel saw all this, holding the wheel firmly, & in one place.  The sea was now higher than I had before seen it, one big chap breaking over the rails & sweeping hens & everything moveable into the lee scuppers, and then tumbling them back to leeward.  The old woman fetched away & sprained her ankle.  The gale moderating a little in the afternoon, the s. watch loosed the foresail & shook out a reef from m. t. sail, but our watch again reefed & furled this last sail during dog watch, the s. watch close reefing again the m. topsail.  We had hard work furling the foresails, the gaskets being short, & the sail wet & heavy.  R. Eggs & I took the weather yd-arm, & the mate sent us up again to restow our work, but we could not better it, till the mate himself came up a shroud & showed us how to furl in a gale.  M & I caught after supper with my line a large goonie.  We carried it forward to the waist, where the huge bird unable to raise from the deck was made fun of by all hands, the cook dancing around him, crying out:  “How to do old fellow, come aboard to see me, didn’t you – Have a piece of soft tack?” till the Old Man came forward & told us to let him go lest we should have a gale of wind.  We took him by his immensely long wings & dumped him overboard headlong into the sea where soon recovering from his ducking & fright, he spread his wings, canted himself forward, paddled along the water till he had enough headway, when he rejoined his fellows, numbers of whom were flying on all sides.  I saw a flock of them asleep that night.  This superstition of the Cap. is to me a token not merely of a superstitious & unreasonable fear in seamen about destroying these birds, but a sign of a merciful & tender feeling in the sailor best exprest in the lines of Coleridge:

                                                “He liveth well who loveth well
                                    Both man & bird & beast
                                                He liveth best, who loveth best
                                    All things both great and small
                                                For the dear God who loveth us
                                    He made & loveth all”

8 hours out, cold, wet, the ship rooling heavily, so that is [sic] was difficult to walk to keep warm.  We loosed & set foresail, & fore topsail double reefed, shook out one reef from the m. topsail & with this sail continued on.  The s. watch set the jib & m. sail but soon took them in again.  This has been quite a severe gale, but it is now moderating, though still blowing hard.  We are on soundings, but the wind blows a little off shore.  On Sunday saw numbers of finbacks, & while at the masthead, I was twice startled by the sudden blowing of these immense fish close to the ship, one passing right under our bow sprit.  Their spout is abaft their nose & very sudden, in volume resembling the steam puffing from a tea kettle, very much like the quick hoosh-h of a rocket when it first rises.  It is too rough for me to write with a pen. 

Wednesday Dec. 22nd.

Just as I am writing I hear the s. watch reefing topsails.  Blowing hard, clear sky, a magnificent sea, heavier than at any previous time, immense waves, rooling their sunlight foaming crests toward the ship.  4 hours out last night.  Just as we were called at 6 bells Millers harsh voice was heard at the scuttle hatch calling us to reef the topsail.  M sprang on deck and single reefed the m. t. sail, it blowing quite hard with a clear sky.  It freshened a little in about half an hour, when we clewed up & furled the m. sail, jib, spanker, and double reefed both topsails.  The moon now came up in full glory making a splendid scene, the outragious waters softened by the gentle queen of night.  When we came on deck this morning we found the sail as we had left it, double reefed topsails, foresail, staysail and the m. spencer, this last being set by s. watch.  Under this sail we have been all this A.M. Preventer braces are rigged to weather foreyard arm, & everything snug for a heavy gale.  Too rough to do any work on deck, but we have been making matsI wish I could well describe the beauty & magnificence of the scene on deck.  No pen could describe it.  The carpenter was roused last night with our watch to reef and he has just been roused up on deck by the mate.  I am heartily glad that I am not in Millers watch, he is so rough & brutal.  Poor Tompson, too stupid to learn the rigging, has been blubbering on deck this AM, till the mate sent him below after giving him one of his lectures, very kind however.  The s. watch have just close reefed f. topsail & furled the f. sails, the mate & 2nd mate swearing like bull dogs at some of the slow-witted sailors, for the mate now calls us his sailors.  Too rough to use a pen.  We rather prided ourselves on the furl we gave the m. sail last night, our watch being confessedly the smartest watch.

Thursday Dec 23rd 1858. 

Steering about S.S.E. full & by.  Gale moderated, but occasional heavy squalls, heavy sea, cloudy & cold.  8 hours out, during first watch it began to rain, wind going down, when we shook out a reef from m. l sail {M & I going aloft} loosed & set both courses.  This A.M. watch a heavy squall came up when we clewed up the m. sail and brailed up spanker.  A second heavy squall coming up, we hauld down the jib that had split from the bolt ropes.  It took us nearly half an hour to haul it down, the hanks fouling on the jib stay.  Looks bad to windward.  Mate saw a right whale spout this A.M. watch. The pigs have been our barometers for the last week or so, having indicated the last two gales by frisking about and prancing in a most ludicrous way; or running like mad fore & aft or around the try works.  The cabin barometer is a poor instrument, not indicating the severe gales we had of the river Plata.  The mate has broken out a new pipe, his old pipe being broken.  This same old pipe has been our barometer, never failing to indicate work, when it fell from the mates hands to its place under the stern of the starboard boat on the house.  A black-stained pipe, we all watched it after a meal, and while between the mates lips, we could smoke or loaf, but when its ashes were knocked out over the rail, we all prepared for work.  Mittens are now necessary at the wheel in the night watches.  Cape Horn pigeons are now flying around the ship. 

Friday Dec 24th. 

Almost a calm, steering full & by, Cloudy, cold, Thermometer 52.  Under all sails, shook out a reef from each topsail just after supper last night & this A.M. loosed & set everything.  Our watch yesterday afternoon, on the quarter deck, were all set to work middle stiching a spare jib.  I lost one, & broke two needles.  Mate laughed at me.  All hands talking, very pleasant work.  We then set — or rather bent on — the jib, sending in the old one by the halliards, downhauled & clew rope to leeward, & sending out the new one in the same way.  This A.M. we killed two hogs, the little Doctor & another.  This is for tomorrow, Christmas.  I shall miss the Doctor.  He was quite a pet among us.  Bean soup for dinner – when M & I made a mess of raw onions, fat pork, potatoes & soup, with a dash of pepper sauce.  Friday is our bean day.  During the gale have made considerable leeway, but not much latitude.  Now about 42º south.  Saw a large ship, bound home, she passed us like the wind.  Night watches are now decidedly uncomfortable.  2nd mate struck a right whale porpoise, but lost him, the iron being rusty.  2nd mate a little tipsy in the afternoon, though I dont know that anyone observed this but M & I.  3rd Mate didnt come on deck till after 5 in the first dog watch having overslept more than an hour.  The mate must think he has putty  officers under him.  It began to blow again in the afternoon when the s. watch reduced sail to double reefed topsails, foresail, spanker, M. s., f. stay s. & j.  Steering full & by about S. by E.  Squalls frequent during night, during one I R. E. & Tom furled the j.  Very cold night watches, all hands under house to keep dry, seas breaking over weather rail forward.  Johnny got drunk, dead drunk in afternoon on gin, Miller supplying the drink.  Miller himself not far from drunk.  Very risky & blamable in him.  M & I took some aquadente during first night watch & were decidedly warmed thereby.  We have a quart of it.  S. watch danced over us & we returned the compliment.  Much swearing on both sides thereat.  Heavy squalls this m watch, one hail squall covering the decks with hail.  M got a handful & made the Por’s taste it.  They spat it out in disgust.  Before this squall came on we brailed up the S, clewed up the f. s. & f. l. s. & laid the f. y. to the wind, & after squall sheeted home & braced back again.  wore ship about 5 bells & furled f. s. on starboard tack, about eve, rigged man ropes along weather rail, to exercise, ship rooling so much.  After breakfast Santa Anna & R. E. got into a fight, S. A. using a club which all these chaps have made, & hitting R. E. over the head till M. separated them.  Heavy hail squall just came up.  Lat about 44º south.  Thermometer fell during first hail s from 50 to 46, so cold was it.  Dutchman, R. E. & I going down into f. hold to keep warm.  Tripp & M put on the hatches and kept us there half an hour.  We enjoyed a good nap therein.  This was our Christmas present.  Now under double reefed l. sls, m. s. & st. s.

Saturday Dec. 25th 

Lat about 44°, Lon 48, now standing about west on larboard tack. Heavy wind & sea & cold, thermometer 45.  S. watch close reefed f. l. s. this A.M.  Shifted l. f. brace to topsails, both f. braces now on the l. & s. rails.  Been reeving reef tackles to the m. sail & restowing f. hold.  Christmas today.  We had a little fresh pork for dinner, just a taste around.  I handed around a pot of tomatoes in our watch.  “Old woman” sent me a nice cranberry pie.  Had a good dinner.  Goland tells me we have no business to be where we are, to much to the eastward, in 48º while C. Horn lies in about 67º.  We should keep in nearer shore.  Those were sandbanks that I mistook for shore soundings.  I am tired of this place – cold, wet very heavy seas, hail squalls & nothing but clewing up & reefing, ship close hauled & making little progress.  The Cap. is a young navigator.  Mittens & thick boots are now indispensable.  Heavy hail squall just came up.  Now dog watch — about 2 bells.  The heavy seas knock against the old barke like, as Dickens says, as if a big Triton (?) were planting his fist in her face in true boxing style.  We have now alternately the dog watches below, our watch had come below this first d. watch.  I was lying in my bunk smoking & reading when Miller sung out:  all hands ahoy to close reef m. l. s.  We hardly thought this necessary as our watch never calls for aid for such light work as to reef one l. s..  We have finished the job in style & are now under close reefed l. sls., f. sails & m. sp. & j.  Heavy & black looking squall just coming up from S. W. 

Sunday Dec. 26th 1858. 

Steering full & by about S.W. by S.  Fine wind, cold, a little thick & cloudy, heavy sea.  Under m. l. s. close reefed f. l. s., m. sl., f. sl., st. sl., m. sp., sp.  During middle watch last night our watch shook out a single reef from M. t. s., and this A.M. shook out the other two & set sail as aboveWe were standing on larboard tack, I at wheel, when the wind began to haul till we were heading N. by E., when the “Old Man” came on deck and ordered Mr. Folger to wear ship.  We wore ship & are now standing on starboard tack under the above sails.  M & I eat a pie the “old woman” sent M, reserving the one she sent me till tonight.  We have now about 40 degrees of longitude to make besides some 15º latitude {?} before we reach the horn.  Had bread scouse for breakfast, all slush, wretched stuff —  none of us eat it, but still we have it occasionally.  I had just finished writing the above when we were called out to double reef m. t. s.  I came near falling off the weather yard arm, there being nothing to hold on by except the reef points, but the ship pitched so that when I attempted to knot my points I would fall backwards and nearly swing off.  Once I almost lost my hold.  Johnny came near doing the same.  We then furled the jib, 4 or 5 of us going out.  The ship was plunging her head at times clear under & there was danger of getting drenched through, if not washed overboard.  We watched our chance and sprang out when we had a chance, but on the boom we were again almost jerked over, the wind blowing almost a gale.  I managed to escape a wetting .  3 only went out at first, but the mate sent me & Shanghai to help them, they being unable to master the large sails.  Wet on deck, seas continually breaking over the weather rail. 

Monday Dec 27th 1858. 

Almost calm, under sp, m. t. g. s, m. l. s,  m. s, f. t. s,  f.s, st. sl, j & fjSky clear, pleasant & warm, Ther 60º.   Sea gone down, steering on larboard tack about N.W. by W.  During first night watch, wind died away, when we set m. s. & j. & wind hauling we wore ship to her present course.  The s. watch shook out the reefs & set the m. l. g. s & f. j.  The gale & heavy weather has thus continued since last Thursday.  We dont anticipate any worse weather at the Horn, though it may be colder.  M & I eat our other pie last night.  It tasted delicious.  A glorious sunrise this morning, displaying softer and more various hues than I have ever witnessed, first the “lord of day” casting his glories in blushing vermillion tints on a strata of cirrus clouds, then in the most delicate & soft hues changing to a mild golden, then to a bright copper color, and filling the entire horizon with a belt of subdued red, & at last raising his broad glowing face above the countenance of the now gentle Thetis and beginning his state in all his blazing splendor.  “The Tailor” is now backing a vest for me out of a flannel undershirt that I had destroyed by placing it in my oil keg.  Mastheads again.  Tom raised a school of fin backs.  Dutchman & M cutting up tobacco for the Horn.  S. watch now have only hour wheels & mastheads.  I have been trying to induce our watch to fall into the same arrangement, & they, all of them who take wheels, 5 in all, acquiesce except the Dutchman, who is set on the old arrangement. I dont know how it will turn out.  In cold weather 2 hours tricks are too long.  A man will get well nigh frozen standing still so long. While at m. head this PM a heavy fog came down on the ship “en masse,” flying before the wind which now blows strongly, swiftly like a dense cloud of smoke, & enveloping the ship so that you could not see even the water a ships length ahead.  We were ordered down by the “Old Man” but soon returned, as the mist passed & swept to leeward, much as I imagine a fire on a prairie hurries its masses of fire & smoke along.  Very fine & singular cirrus & stratus clouds shading off in the most delicate streaks, like very fine hair.  A meteorologist would enjoy such scenes very much.  Been on l. s. yard with Mr Goland new reeving through fair leaders, the f. l. g. braces.  I was obliged to stand on the extreme lee yard arm & pass the bight of the brace over the m. l. g. bowline that is bent on some 7 or 8 feet upon the leach of the l. g. sail.  Goland told me to be quiet or I would be shaken off.

Tuesday Dec 28th. 

Fine wind, steering S.W., under all sail, weather fine, sky clear, sea moderate.  The mate now takes command of our night watches, till we get around the Horn.  He called all our watch aft last night & told us he would give us as much time to turn out as he himself took & forbad any man to leave the deck till all the s. watch had turned out.  We have been in the habit of tardily turning out or “soaking” as they call it.  Jack & I cleaned out the try pots this A.M., a very dirty job, taking us all the morning to complete it, scooping off the rust with scrapers then polishing with bricks & canvass & sand & lastly oiling all over. 

Wednesday Dec 29th. 

Steering S. W. by W.   Fine wind, under all sail but f. l. g. sl., going about 7 knots.  Sea a little rugged, wetting deck constantly, sky clear, weather pleasant & warm.  Furled f. j. last night & m. l. g. sl, but I went aloft & unloosed it again.  Been at work this A.M. cutting & splitting wood.  Cook got gallied because Shanghai made a little noise eating hard bread & molasses last middle watch & blew out his lamp.  S. retorted, when Cook dared him to fight.  M. joined in till the cook got furious & dared all our watch to fight, & gathered himself up in his bunk to be ready for us.  A great deal of loud talking & swearing but no blows.  Cook offers to fight S. for two shares of duff.  Cap. thought he saw a reef about a ships length from the ship, there being green water there. Lat 46º50, Lon about 55º  Green water seen.  Cap thinks these coral reefs.  They are quite near the ship.

Thursday Dec 30th 1858. 

Steering full & by, about S.W. by S.  Wind light, under all sail but f. l. g. sl.  Sea quiet, sky clear, somewhat warm.  I put on my oil pants to draw water yesterday in first dog watch when the 2nd mate sung out: “Drop everything & haul down f. j.  I & Allegany sprang out and furled the sails & while doing so, saw the watch on deck clewing up m. l. g. s. & men going aloft to furl it.  We congratulated ourselves on escaping this job and completing our furl laid in.  Looking to windward we could see a dark bank of clouds and rapid orders were now issued to haul down j, clew up m. sl., fsl, sp.,  g. t. sl. and reef topsails.  I helped clew up f. sl. & t. sl, when I with Frank P. & Tom went out and furled the j.  We were startled by a loud clap of thunder while doing this, & a flash of lightning shot across the dark clouds heralding the rain which soon deluged everything, covering the sea with foam, and perfectly drenching us, & almost blinding me.  Like a shower bath it well nigh took away my breath.  One or two sharp puffs of wind followed, but they did not amount to much.  Again laying in, we bowsed away at our reef tackles, our watch attending to the head sails, the s. watch to the after sails, then sprang aloft and doubled reefed topsails.  Descending to the deck, we made everything snug; took out the pistons from the pump, to prevent the lightning from descending to the hold; stopped up the pump with canvass, & then, the wind having died away, the rain continuous but slight, & the Old Man expecting it to blow hard from some quarter, we braced the yards several times, till at last we stood along a starboard tack.  We were now in a perfect calm, but the weather looking bad, we now close reefed topsails, I taking the weather earing with Goland.  The wind still being very light, though it still rained, our watch went to supper.  We had finished supper & most of the watch had gone on deck & part of the other had come below, Tom & I stopping a minute to fill our pipes, when Miller, the 2nd mate, coming to f. hatch bauled out: “Most ready to relieve the watch then?  Do you hear then?”  Both Tom & I answered “ay sir” but Miller not hearing us sang out “Do you hear then?  Why dont you answer?” I was now ascending the steps when Miller stepping to the hatchway cried out to me in his brutal coarse tones: “Why dont you answer, you d–d son of a bitch?  I’ll break your G-d d–d bloody head in if you dont answer me.”  I replied calmly “I did answer you,” when he shook his fist in my face & cried: “You lie, dont you say so again.”  I didnt answer him, but walked away when he called out to me to go and clean up some dirt that lay in a little spot on deck.  I scraped up the dirt, when Miller stepping up to Tom, made use of language too impure for my journal to record, telling him that he lied & not to tell him that he had answered him.  Now Miller had no business to interfere with us.  This belonged to the mate.  We were not to blame for stopping to fill our pipes, a custom with us every night.  Miller has destroyed every feeling of respect or friendship I ever had for him, & for his brutality I shall use all means to punish him.  I have seen him drunk & kick a sick man in the face, & haul him by the hair of the head up the forecastle steps & then beat him in the face with his clenched & brutal fist.  He is not fit to command men, as he is no man himself.  There was no doubt about our answering him, for plenty in the forecastle could testify to it.  We had every right to do as we did.  It may do for Miller to call an unfriended man anything he pleases, but the language he used towards me admits of no apology.  To be called a liar & a son of a bitch by such a man warrants me in availing myself of every means of punishing him, & of avoiding him as unfit for the company of decent men or respectable women, for his brutality is undoubtedly enhanced by a severe disease that almost maims him & which was engendered in the pursuit of the lowest pleasures.  4 hours out, almost a dead calm.  Night black, but no rain.  We were expecting a severe blow and as I & Shanghai walked up & down the forecastle deck sobered by the universal gleam of heaven sea & air, the calm so perfect that we could hear the officers conversing on the quarter deck, the watch distributed about the deck, some on the windlass, some on the try pot & some walking or smoking.  We were well night startled, as conversing a little superstitiously, we observed a glow on the water flitting about much like a jack-o-lantern in a swamp.  The silence was doubled by this strange phenomenon.  Patches of glowing phosphorescence would appear here & there & then disappear, unlike anything we had before seen, & the strangeness of the sight & the silence & stillness of everything combined with the gloom wakened, I must confess, a feeling of dread, and a sense of superstitious fear that I should be ashamed of.  A little philosophy soon relieved us from our timid state, & we conjectured it to be some fish moving through the phosphorescent waves.  Saw while at mast head some green water, a long streak like a molten glass indicating I suppose a shoal or bank.  We passed directly over what I imagine was a reef.  I could see very distinctly white ends (?) clustering all around us far beneath the surface.  We are now looking for land, the Falkland Islands. 

Friday Dec 31st 1858

Fine wind, under usual sail.  Cloudy, a little sea, weather not cold.  8 hours out – dead calm first watch, when we furled j. & f. j. – {I & Tom & Shanghai furling them} & m.l.g.s and clewed down everything else to keep the sails from flapping except f. l. sl. sl. which is never furled except when in port.  Our watch then amused themselves with trying to catch some Sea Squalls {a gelatinous kind of fish, great numbers of which were around the ship; and which I had mistaken while at the mast head for coral reefs; and which caused the phosphorescence which so startled me the night before} and darting an iron, and with gymnastic exercises, the ship lying nearly motionless, and there being a perfect stillness all around the ship.  The wind freshened during the middle watch & all sail was set.  Just at daybreak a large barke was discovered just abeam, & she soon bore down for us, disclosing to us the familiar appearance of a N. B. whaler, the Gen. Scott of FairHaven.  We hauld aback our main yard, and as the passed us just astern our Cap hailed her, asking where from, where bound, any oil?, her lat. & lon., and inviting her skipper to come aboard & bring all the news.  Our “Old Man” was evidently in a hurry to hear the news for he lowered away his boat & pulled aboard the stranger.  I was at the wheel, and in vain beckoned to several of our watch to come & relieve me.  Each expecting a chance to pull in his “gam” boat refused, and I missed the chance to have a “gam” as the visitings of whaling captains is called.  While the boat was gone a thunder storm coming up, our watch doubled reefed topsails & reduced sail.  By this time the boat had returned, the Cap bringing a bundles of papers, and this news that the G. S. was 12 days later out than we were.  The G. S. encountered the norwester that we met in the Gulf Stream, & had her bulwarks stove in, & lost three boats.  One man had died on the passage.  They had taken no oil, burning a slush lamp in forecastle.  The crew were very much dissatisfied living on foul meat without any potatoes & fighting every day.  I learned that at the Bethel in N. B. prayers are offered for me.  The blacksmith told this to R. Eggs.  God bless my dear Libby for her pious affections.  It moves me, this information.  Surely, I should be very much blessed while the prayers of so many good people petition for my safety.  Dearest Lib, Heaven bless & preserve you.  This is the last day of the year & the old “58” is weeping himself asleep, for it is now raining steadily.  Mrs. Wilson sent me 2 pairs of duck suspenders, a timely present.  I gave Johnny a reading lesson this AM, a regular bother taking a great deal of my time, while he is excessively dull.  However I owe this much labor & time to Mrs. Wilson for her kindness towards me.  I shall get a paper from the Old Man as soon as I can.  The thunder storm passed & left us our present fine wind. 

Saturday Janurary 1st 1859. 

Strong wind, sea heavy, sky clear, steering full & by about S. by E.  Two ships just ahead, one a whaler.  Under single reefed m. l. sl., m. sl, double reefed f. t. sl., f. sl., st. sl. & j.  During our middle night watch the new year came in.  The man at the wheel struck one bell at 12 oclock, when M & I took a little aquadente & switchelWe furled m. t. g. sl.,  M Sh & I going aloft to do it, and stowed the f. j.  Saw a large ship just abeam faintly framed against the sky in the night gloom.  Had roast pork for dinner but not enough hardly for one man.  Old woman sent me 5 cigars as a New Years present.  Cap this morning asked the mate & 3rd mate down to the cabin, saw them spit out quids & clean their mouths — very suspicious & extraordinary circumstance this.  Think they went down to Splice Main Brace, especially as immediately afterwards the cabin boy carried down a pitcher of water.  What are the dear friends at home doing today?  Very pleasantly, I hope, celebrating the infant year with due festivities.  I smoke my cigar and content myself with this degree of jubilee.

Sunday January 2nd 1859. 

Steering full & by on larboard tack about W by N.   Sea with heavy swells from westwards, sky clear, weather fine but cold.   Ther 46-7 at 5 AM.  Under usual sail except l. g. sls & j.  Hail squall just came up.  The s. watch double reefed f. l. sl., furled m l g sl. & single reefed m. t. sl. last night, but this morning we furled f. j. & m. t. gsl. & about 5 bells the wind hauling we wore ship & stood on the same tack as at present.  Lat yesterday 47.30º.  Quite cold now during night watches, but Tom kept me warm & merry by singing his grotesque irish songs, varying them by original remarks in true irish brogue & style, with native wit that kept us in a continuous roar.  Mrs Wilson sent me some Madeira wine last night, a half bottle — capital stuff.  This & one of the “Old Man’s” fine havannah’s relished deliciously.  However both cigars and wine came through the hands of Johnny, & his fingers probably diminished the one & lightened the other, for he left a bung spile in the bottle instead of the cork.  The price I pay for these attentions from Mrs Wilson is to teach Johnny to read, an almost helpless task he is so careless & in this respect stupid.  Had a bit of roast pig for supper last night.  The mast heads are freezingly cold, the wind fresh & very chill, and piercing the warmest clothing to your bones, making you stiff after standing on the topsail yard or l. g. cross trees for 2 hours & 2 hours & a half, for our scheme of hour wheels & mastheads failed through the obstinacy of the Dutchman who, great bull dog that he is, pretends that he can stand almost anything.  But to me one night he showed the white feather, not daring to go out on spritsail yard or boom to clear j. sheet when it was blowing hard, for he drew back after getting halfway out, afraid to go further.  I went out & cleared the sheet.   The other watch rejoices in hour wheels & mastheads.  There is now a great rivalry between our two watches in regard to the turn out reliefs, each retaliating on the other any tardiness in relief. 

Monday Jany 3rd 1859. 

Strong wind from soutward, steering full & by about W by N.  Heavy Sea, sky clear, weather not uncomfortable.  Ther at noon 52.  Now under double reefed t. sls, fsl, stsl, j, m, sp.  Everything else furled.  Heavy sea on yesterday, but moderate wind, occasional rain squall.  Read on deck — Essays from London
Times.  M says Goland was a little drunk, for he invited him down to drink.  I however didnt observe anything of the kind.  Cooper gave me some gin, very good & warming 4 hours out.  Furled f. j & m .t. gsl.  S. Watch double reefed f.t.sl & single reefed m. t. sl.  This A.M. our watch shook out reef from m.tsl. & set m.l.gsl & fj, but wind freshing to a young gale we doubled reefed both t. sls, furled t.g.sl & f.j. & spanker & g. t. sl & m. sl.  wore ship to larboard tack where we are now.  Cut up old f. l. sl. to make weather cloths for quarter deck, from house to chains outside the rails.  Have commenced hour wheels & mastheads.  Dutchman agreeing to try it for a week.  2 sail in sight.  I am in fine health & spirits, enjoying the forenoon very much. 

Tuesday Jany 4th 1859. 

Almost a calm, under all sail but f. sp. & f. l gsl.   On larboard tack, steering S.W.  Cloudy, chilly, looking like rain.  8 hours out, when in first watch we shoot out the reefs & set the m. l. gsl. Lat 48º Lon 51º, Ther 54.  The rivalry between the two watches, in stamping over each other’s heads during night watches, came to a crisis last night.  Our watch had made considerable noise, the boys going on the starboard side of the forecastle deck and patting with their boots over the head of the Growler, and peeping into the forecastle to see if any one was watching, till the Growler got mad, & rushing on deck, struck R. Eggs, who was “breaking down.”  R. E. struck back, & for a moment or two there was quite a row, John jumping in his shirt sleeves to the assistance of Growler, till M called out “One at a time;” when Johnny swearing terribly threw of everything and valiantly proclaimed battle – -“la outrance”– to all our watch.  No one accepting this universal challenge, & Growler contenting himself with damning our watch with blue curses, our watch generally remaining silent and apparently awed by the pluck of these two champions, especially as the cook & Charley Curtis appeared on the steps to back up their watchmates, the matter ended for a moment,  G & John going below with parting curses.  But M recovering from his dismay called out to them to come on deck again & then proposed that we should arm ourselves with belaying pins & standing at the hatchway, again renew the noise & and knock down the first man that appeared.  All but I agreed to this, & did accordingly.  Some six men armed with belaying pins standing by the hatchway, the two Portugee armed with their clubs, while the Taylor commenced to dance.  I thought this cowardly & told the boys so.  It was a real Portugee way of fighting, to wait this way till the fighters had gone below & then call them again, with all the advantage of position & belaying pins.  The event proved them cowards, for Growler boldly coming up dared any man to strike him, when M to my surprise suggested composition of the difficulties, with John which was agreed to:  each watch to make no noise hereafter forward of the windlass.  Thus ended the quarrel, but M before our watch told me that aboard some ships I would get thrashed by my watch for not joining them.  I replyed that might be, but wouldnt for that reason join such a cowardly band, that it was unfair to use anything but fists, & that I would risk any thrashing that such men would attempt.  M attempted to excuse himself but the watch sided with me, ashamed that they had been led to the affair by M.  My watch came out of the scrape with anything but glory, while I think they respect me for my firmness.  We began to sing Shanties last night in hauling off sheets or lowering on halliards, Jack leading in “Johnny Francois” & “Katy my darling” and all hands taking up the refrain & pulling with a will.  This pleased the mate, who told us that was pretty well for the first time, that he liked to hear us make a noise, as it showed that Jack — “not Allegany” — but any one of us, was awake.  He laughed, rubbed his hands, & crew out “that’s the way, sailors.” The first time when lowering away on f. t. sl halliards, Tom set them all a roaring by his ludicrous singing, till Mate & all laughing, they were obliged to avast singing, and haul away without the “Shantie,” but the next attempt was more successful, & we hauld home the main sheet in fine style.  The Mate begins to realize my idea of a sailor, as with a monkey jacket & wide trousers, a short black pipe in his mouth, bushy whiskers, curly hair, peeping out from beneath his hat, a clear sparkling eye, his tall figure, every inch of it a sailor, stands in full relief on the quarter deck, promptly issuing orders in a clear cheering tone, or joking with all hands, or walking to & fro on his privileged weather side. 

Wednesday Jany 5th 1859.  

Steering W, light winds, under usual sail, sky clear, a little cold, but very bracing pleasant weather, sea quiet.  During middle watch last night the wind freshening, we furled m. l. gsl. & f. j. & g. t.sl., I helping to stow the two latter.  The wind still increasing & blowing hard, we clewed down & double reefed both t. sls, Tripp & I taking both lee earings.  We reefed f. t. sl in less than 5 minutes, all of us working with a will.  It is very exciting sport to reef t. sls, such a night as last night.  We then boused away on the halliard to Jack’s shanties, the Mate calling on him to sing.  The mate evidently thinks our watch very smart.  This is splendid weather, but I want to get around the Horn, but this light wind helps but little. 

Thursday Jany 6th 1859. 

Steering S.S.W., light wind, but steady,  sea moderate. under all the usual sail.  Sky clear, a little cool, fine weather, 500 miles from horn, 120 from Falkland Islands.  Yesterday afternoon, after working on foot ropes to foreyard, new serving,  splicing, bending on stirrups &c, till supper.  We went below, took our grub & on going on deck again, all hands were set to work taking in on deck the waist & bow boats.  It was nearly a dead calm & a beautiful evening.   We hauld up on to the house the waist boat & lashed it, & placed the bow boat on the try works with the bow resting on the fore fifrail & then lashed it; took in the cranes, hauld the boat tackles two blocks & lashed the falls; lashed the spare spars across the bows just aft of the anchor, and stowed away the irons & oars belonging to the boats.  It was very pleasant & exciting work, & we finished it at about 2 bells.  This is to prepare for the storm which we are now approaching.  Shanghai said we were going to have a most terrible gale, for he dreampt of shipwreck on the F. Islands during the afternoon watch below & on waking in a fright & coming on deck he found the pig running around deck, to him a confirmation of his dream.  But as yet there is delightful weather.  I was so busy working that I forgot all about my wheel, & Chips stood a two hours trick.  I went to the wheel at 2 bells & on striking for relief at 4 bells, Jack who was singing shanties forward, refused to relieve me, & I was obliged to stand out the watch.  This was done at the suggestion of members of the watch who are angry at me for refusing to join them the other night with a belaying pin.  I have been foolish enough to tell Jack that he need not ask me to do anything for him, & that he need not wash for me in the future.  The thick headed Dutchman says I wanted to be smart before the “old woman” who happened to be on deck at the time I should have been at the wheel, but I hushed him up pretty quickly when he remarked this to me. The Dutchman thinks himself the smartest green hand in our watch, but he cant get ahead of me, & therefore he is my rival, a rival without a particle of honor or generosity.  But I dont mind him at all, & can always silence him when he begins to bully.  This morning, when very much engaged with Mr Goland sewing a foot rope, I was so absent minded as to neglect my mast head, & was wholly surprised to find that my mast head had been taken by R. Eggs, who relieved Shanghai.  This absence of mine bothers me not a little.  I shall however make it all right again by due vigilance.  As a mark of courtesy I always bow to Mrs Wilson when I meet her on deck, and to the suspicious & jealous Dutchman, who really is one of the most wooden headed fellows I know in such matters though quick enough about the ship, this courtesy is a mark of Mrs Wilson’s partiality for me above the other hands, & it fills his dull brain with all kinds of jealousies.  I dont allow him to express them aloud, but his looks tell plainly what he thinks.  I can afford to disregard this, for what is the Dutchman to me, but a low fellow, whose thoughts run only on fighting & low pleasures? 

Friday Jany 7th 11859. 

Now steering S.S.E., wind dead aft, about an eight knot breeze, under suitable sail.  F. t. gsl. was set yesterday afternoon, but we furled it again this morning.  A little cloudy, but on the whole fine weather.  Yesterday P.M. it was uncomfortably hot on deck, so this A.M.  Unusual weather for these latitudes – expecting to make land every hour – the F. Islands.  Mate raised what he thought was land this AM about 2 oclock, & we altered our course for it, but it proved to be clouds.  We now have of a clear night not quite 4 hours of darkness a night, day breaking about one oclock & night setting in about 10, so that the middle watch has only 2 hours of darkness.  Morn came in beautifully this A. M.  With one of the “Old Man’s” prime havannah’s & a drink of Madeira, I enjoyed the last two hours of our middle watch right well.  Yesterday afternoon, while we were at work on the Main hatch & around it, we were startled by a cry from aloft of “Stand from Under” & rushing under the house we heard something heavy falling from aloft, bounding against the rigging, and looking quick we saw the body of a man bounce against the Main brace, then splash into the water, arms & legs flung out by the impetus of the fall.  “Man overboard” shouted the mate – “stand by to lower a boat.”  Shocked beyond measure to find what I had imagined — a yard or t. g. mast falling so heavily — changed into a man, & startled by the suddenes of the thing, I rushed to the weather rail & saw apparently the corpse of the Cooper floating about a rod from the ship, the face turned upwards, the hair dragged in the water & surrounded by blood, & the limbs sunk beneath the waves.  It was a terrible sight.  I jumped into the chains, crying out for a rope, & was unlashing a boat fall, when the captain, his face covered with lather from shaving, jumped beside me with a rope & threw it to the cooper who was striking out nervously for the ship.  It was a dead calm, but the poor fellow was so bewildered that for a moment or two he caught unavailingly at the rope, when he clutched it with a drowning man’s grasp & we hauled him gently along side.  “Can you hold on for a minute till a boat comes for you” cried the captain.  “Yes sir,” replied the cooper, looking up at us with  his white face as he swung up & down on the swell.  Haul back this m. yard shouted the cap; “Hold on hard – are you hurt.”  “Not much sir, but my leg pains me.”  Just then the mate rounded the ships stern and shot up, nearly stoving the cooper’s head, so eager was the mate. Lifting him carefully in, we hoisted the boat to its cranes & assisted the cooper on deck.  He was considerably bruised, but no bones were broken.  The Cap bled him & restored him & put him in his bunk.  It appears that the cooper was going aloft to his mast head, & was just getting into the topmost crosstrees when a fainting fit seized him, & Manuel who stretched out to grasp him was horrified to see him loose his hold & fall over the crosstrees, apparently right upon the deck.  He — Manuel — sang out “stand from under”{ but the ship rooling a little to windward canted the cooper on the weather rigging, against which he struck two or three times, then bounced against the m. brace & thence into the sea.  It was a touch & a go.  There wasnt one chance in fifty for him to avoid falling on deck and meeting instant death, but providence deemed otherwise, & the cooper is preserved to us.  He is a fine fellow, good humored, gentle, & to me a good friend.  I was rejoiced at his escape, but I can not describe the first horror when I saw him falling like lead, striking the rigging, shaking the ship even, & slanting overboard with a dead mans splash.  God grant that I may never see the like again.  This A.M. early when we were looking at what we thought was land, R. Eggs, whose eyesight is bad, saw the morning star just above the light horizon, declared that he saw the light house on a hill, but the star rising higher, it puzzled him, till amid the laughter of all hands he decided that it was the moon, for said he “I knowed the moon rose about this time.” 

Saturday Jany 8th 1859

3 months out.  Now dead calm, sky clear, warm & pleasant, sea quiet, course S. by E half E.  Fine wind dead astern all yesterday & part of night.  Mainland not far distant on starboard beam, known by the clouds above it.  Only 3 hours of night last 24 hours.  Splendid sunrise.  Fine & soft downy clouds.  Large gonie asleep by vessel, light a large snowy swan Five gonies along side swimming under the water.  Now between Falkland Islands & main land..  Been grafting beckets to davit falls hooks, pretty work.  Cooper on deck stiff, but with the exception bruises, well.  Given Johnny a lesson, but I all most despair of doing him any good.  Dutchman, Jack & I better friends than ever, advances coming from them met by equal ones from me.  Commenced to doctor Antonio with perceptible success.  Cap got my watch for a binnacle time piece, the clock & two watches having given out.  Expect to make Staten Island soon.

Sunday Jany 9th 1859. 

Under double reefed topsails f. sls, st. sl, & j, everything else snug.  Commenced to blow about 4 A. M. when the wind hauled from the northward to the southard & westward, & freshened up, with occasional squalls of snow & rain, not however very severe, but rather light.  Cloudy, sun now & then out, sea a little rugged. Ther 40º, now heading E. by S.  This is our first touch of the Horn.  When at the mast head yesterday afternoon saw Miller strike a large porpoise called a right whale porpoise.  Fine sport, all hands hauling on the line raising the animal up to the bowsprit and then hauling him in on deck with fluke ropes.  They stripped off his blubber which half filled a barrel, brains given to us — good eating — then slung the carcass by fluke rope to a davit & let him swing to keep him clear from the deck.  Miller told Joe one of the Portugee to do something, & asked Joe, who had just come on deck, if he knew that the rest were at work.  Joe answered No, when Miller, without a word, struck him near a dozen times in the face closing up one eye & swelling up his cheek.  Joe meanwhile holding on to the fore weather bang (?)Joe is thus rendered incapable of duty.  He is now turned in suffering from pain.  Manuel says he shall sharpen his sheath knife & stick Miller if he strikes him.  I think that all the Portugee will have the first chance all on account of Miller, for whom there is no excuse.  

Monday Jany 10th 1859. 

Under all sail.  Nearly calm, sea gone down, with a long swell, Clear, cold, Ther at 6 oclock 44º.   On starboard tack.  Blew hard yesterday & during night with heavy seas, cold, but in the sun comfortable, though it rained during the morning.  wore ship during first dog watch.  Saw a large ship standing W by N on opposite tack under close reefed topsails.  We followed her when we wore ship, when she again passed us heading to the southard.  8 hours out.  During first watch we reefed over both topsails which had been clumsily done by S. watch, but we reefed in true style.  I can not here forbear to remark how much better the mates system of kindness & cheering command affects his watch than the blustering, brutal system of Miller.  The result is our watch work willingly eagerly, while the S. watch driven by fear work without spirit & consequently with but little skill.  Poor Joe has been ordered by the Cap to keep below till his eye –black & swollen evidence of Millers brutality — again becomes well.  I was at the wheel when we reefed M. t. sls, but the mate sent the Tailor to hold the wheel while I took my earing with Tripp.  This reefing is just the thing to warm a man.  During last hour of first watch all hands got under the stern of the boats on the try works, wedging in one on another, a perfect jam, & Jack leading, sung the watch out in shanties — “Johnny Francois,”  “Santa Anna,” “Katy my Darling,” &c, till Goland & Tripp came forward & joined us.  It was very cold & wet, but our singing warmed our hearts, while we were free from the spray, & warm from mutual contact.  During last watch we sawed & split about half a cord of fire wood for the Doctor, & sliced & cleaned xxx  (?) half of the porpoises blubber.  I was at the wheel & escaped the blubber work.  We now have hour wheels.  Even the Dutchman agreeing to during the cold weather, while we wrap up ourselves in thick coats, tippets, mittens, & thick boots.  Even with this protection one hours trick chills us through.  We shook out the reefs from the t. sls, I & M shaking out the m. tsl & I loosed the j, which with the spanker are set.  The S. watch had set everything since.  Tuesday Jany 11th 1859.  Now under close reefed m.t. sl, m, m. sp, & f. l. stsl.  Blowing a southwester, a tremendous sea on, & blowing great guns.  Sky now clear, Ther 47º, laying too under above sail.  Yesterday afternoon — weather thick, with light winds, plenty of porpoises around, & gonies sitting on the waves —  Old Ellis sung out land in morning, but the weather was too thick to make it out.  First day watch, our watch below, I reading on my chest when Miller sung out at hatchway “Muster all hands to reef topsails.”  Sprung on deck & clewed down f. t. sl, it blowing a gale from westward.  All hands hied aloft & double reefed f. l. sl, I taking lee earing with Ellis, laying in I knotted over all the points, they being slack & in granny knots by S. watch men.  Then clewed down & double reefed m. t. sl., I taking weather earing with Goland.  Very exciting work, sail slatting above yard.  I bit my lip in my excitement & found my mouth all bloody on laying down.  Then clewed up m. sl & sp.  Our watch then went below to supper, & after supper furled j. & m. sl, it raining violently.  Then wind on quarter while furling m. sl, we sung out “land ho” & all of us joining we prolonged the cry for near a moment.  The haze lifting, we saw the iron coast & snow capped mountains of Staten Island right ahead, the grim sentinel of the Horn.  We hadnt time even to pass our gaskets, though we had the sail skinned, but laid down & rounded in the lee braces & before the wind headed off from the land.  But we were so near that we were soon in shoal water, immense breakers being all around the ship, with white heads tumbling & breaking in fine style.  It was a narrow escape from shipwreck, it being nearly dark, & weather very thick.  We were standing right on shore, & had not the gloom suddenly risen from the land, we should have been among the beach combers & ashore before three hours.  As it was, we passed into shoal water.  All acknowledged it a narrow escape, for at night it would have been impossible to have discovered land untill too late.  We stood on during night right before the wind, E. by S.  Our middle watch was pleasant, starry & wind light, but about 4 bells this morning Millers hoarse voice again summoned us to shorten sail..  On going on deck half awake we found it blowing very heavily, the S. watch close reefing the M. topsail.  We clewed up f. sl & then f. t. sl, & without a boatsteerer or officer sprang aloft to reef, I taking the lee earing & Dutchman coming out to help me.  But I had no chance to pass my earing for Cap ordered us all down as the gale was increasing every moment.   So we clewed up the sail & were then ordered on to m. t. sl yard to assist the S. watch, who had been on the yard for 2 hours & a half in vain attempting to close reef the sail.  Why they were kept aloft so long I cant imagine.  Miller should have called us sooner.  As it was several men nearly dropped from the yard arms from cold & exhaustion.  Meanwhile I was ordered to furl the spanker, Chipps & Thompson assisting.  I was obliged to shin up the m. t. sl braces to pass the head gasket, the wind blowing me about, I watching my chances to pass & haul, the worst job I have yet had.  I was nearly exhausted when I reached the deck.  M. t. sl being now close reefed we furled f. sl & f. tsl, both hard jobs & dangerous ones, the wind & waves were so high.  Miller & M. went aloft to refurl M. t. gsl but  found it so dangerous a job & so difficult that with the help of two more hands they were over an hour & a half in securing the sail.  While they were doing this, Mate came forward & called out “Come here every man of you, look aloft and see what work a bad furl makes.  Those men have been on that yard over an hour just for your d–d carelessness.  It is all d–d nonsense to make such a furl.  Two men can furl that sail in bad weather, but now four cant take it in.  Dont you let me see any more such furls.”  We now had everything snug, but additional lashings were passed around the jib.  Thus ended the worst work in taking in sail we have yet had. It now blew a perfect hurricane, with a tremendous & still increasing sea.  Our watch got breakfast & then turned out for the morning or forenoon watch.  M & I, & Jack & one or two others sat down under the lee of the boat, on the try works, & bracing ourselves watched the seas that were now magnificent surpassing anything I had imagined or read of.  Though cautioned that we were in danger of being washed overboard with the boat, we sat & smoked our pipes in the sun, till a heavy sea broke over us & drove us aft.  I wish I had power to describe the wild magnificence of the scene, but I will forbear the attempt.  One immense sea broke over the ship & flung a deluge of water into & over the ship so that we, who were aft, could not see the forward part of the ship or rigging.  It is now blowing as hard as ever, the seas still increasing. 

Wednesday Jany 12th 1859. 

Now under all sail, sea gone down a bit but heavy swell on. Chilly, cloudy, Ther 45º.   Going about 4 knots, close hauled & steering S.W.   During first dog watch yesterday the wind slacking somewhat we loosed double close reefed f. l. sl & close reefed over the m. l. sl, I & Tripp taking lee f. tsl. earing & I hauling out the m. t. sl weather earing.  I record with pleasure that I was the first of green hands to haul out an earing, during this gale I taking the weather earing & Goland passing the earing for me.  Uncomfortable night watches, the gale breaking up in rainMost of us came below & slept on chests during our watches, staying below an hour or so.  The ship being under close reefed t. sls, there was little danger of being called.  This A.M. watch we loosed & set everything.  The mate told Miller to commence reefing early as it was dangerous to send men aloft to reef in such weather as we had yesterday.  A large ship on our weather quarter under all sail royals & all.  She was under close reefs when we discovered her.  Could get no molasses yesterday, but got it this morning.  Thursday

Jany 13th 1859. 

Laying too, under double reefed m. t. sl & close reefed f. t.sl, m. sp & sl. Sl. Heavy sea on ,blowing a gale.  Cloudy.  Cold Ther 44º.  Heading S.E. by S.  Yesterday in first dog watch S. watch furled both t. g. sls.  It beginning to blow hard with rain, all our watch turned in with pants on expecting to be called to reef, but the S. watch reduced sail during first n. watch to double reefed t. sls, courses, m. sp & stsl.  In middle watch we close reefed f. tsl & furled m. sl.  Cold in forecastle, put in both doors in hatchway.  S. watch again furled f. sl –blowing a gale.  Hardly any darkness, difficult to say when it was night, a 11 1/2 day began to dawn.  A whaler just ahead, could see her men furling her f. sl.  Lat yesterday at noon 55.38, Ther. 42.  Two sail seen.  During m. watch we sawed up & split some wood, mangrove & red wood.  Strange work sawing wood in a gale.  Mate went aloft with 4 hands and patched f. tsl & broke some needles, sail so stiff.  Broke out a cask of cabbage yesterday, boiled cabbage for dinner, without vinegar, with duff & salt pork, no beef. 

Friday Jany 14th 1859. 

Under everything but spencers.  Fine wind but somewhat light – steering S. W. by W.  Clear , a little cold, Ther. 44.   Sea gone down.  Last night in first dog watch set m. sl, spk, j. & wore ship heading W. by N.   Weather thick with little wind.  We were hauling home lee fore brace, had hauled in slack & were rounding in taught when Jack commenced “Oh the bowline,” a shantie, when the Old Man sung out “Oh damn that bowline – haul away.”  All of us hauled away in silence and didnt gain a foot, purposely, when the mate, who likes to have us sing, cried out, “Belay.”  The Cap. has probably been disturbed in his comfortable bed with his “Oh call her not fair” spouse O’ nights (?), & he is therefore somewhat testy on the shanties question. Jack & all of us are determined to haul away silently as death, & slowly too, till the “Old Man” will be glad to listen to our music.  Set m. t.g. sl & g. t. sl & again wore ship to S.  Dead calm.  S watch set everything — this morning are under sail as above.  M. struck a fine porpoise this A. M., a right whale porpoise with broad white streak running down to his nose & ending in a sharp streak, beautiful animal.  Shall wait till I strike one myself before I preserve a jaw bone.  All hands are tired of porpoise meet, as we get no salt junk while the meat lasts.  Johnny Come Lately is mincing up the meat for “balls” for his watch.  I record with pride in my fastidious journal that this morning I washed my face & hands with castile soap & fresh water.   When shall I do the like again & when shall I narrate the pleasant & comfortable fact that I have shaved?   The future & fair weather only can tell.  This is slow work beating around the Horn; we dont know when it will blow hard, but turn in constantly with pants on expecting to be called to reef t. sls.  We cant have any worse weather than we had two days ago.  I shant soon forget that morning.  It was a terrible experience for some of us.  In morning watch broke out water.  Rather strange this, working in the middle of Jany a 3 oclock in the morning, when it was as light as it is now.  There dont seem to be any night now, but all day.  Caught a large gonie yesterday whose wings measured from tip to tip 10 1/2 feet.  Let him go at “Old Mans” orders.  We think “Old Man” should let us splice main brace when reefing in this cold weather. Much grumbling because he wont.   Ther last night 40º.  Weather thick, but little wind. 

Saturday Jany 15th 1859.  

Steering W.S.W. full & by, or close hauled.   Cloudy, drizzling rain, Tem 47º, heavy swell from westward.  Yesterday had every stich of canvass set, even spencers.   Heading W.S.W.  Poor Chipps stood around the decks, not walking & keeping warm, but shivering in one spot, the butt of all hands with his long sober face & thin nose, like a patient cow standing in the rain chewing the cud   The pig began to camcole [sic] and gallop up & down the decks like a racer taking his exercises.  It was amusing to see the Mate & Cap watch him & then cast an anxious eye to windward & then aloft.  Now constantly cloudy, strong current to eastward.  First day watch S. watch furled f. t. g. sl & f. j., but ten minutes afterwards I loosed the f. j.  Fine wind from N. N. by W. last night & this A. M.  We made a good run, but about 4 bells this A. M. wind hauled a little to S. and died away.  Very heavy swell on.   We were spanking along, the ship occasionally making tremendous plunges & shipping over the bow large quantities of water, her martingale & bow sprit dipping under, when to ease her M. & I went out & furled f. j., a dangerous job.  We were cautioned by the mate not to get jerked overboard, & watching our chance, just after a plunge, we sprang out on the f. j. boom & furled the sail.  Rainy all morning.  Loaned steward my Shakespeare — mate asked him if it was a low book.  Now in the long Pacific swell, very disagreeable weather.  Lost a mitten overboard from f. j. boom. 

Sunday Jany 16th 1859. 

Hove too under close reefed m. t. sl, m. sp. & staysls, blowing a S. W. gale, hatches &c. lashed {From my notebook} “Yesterday:  wind light, cold & uncomfortable rain, close hauled, steering W. by S., thought of shore comforts in day watch, Marsh (?) & I talking about home & his Mary.  Hurrah west of Horn — Long 67.46, Horn is 67.31.  60 or 70 miles south of Cape D.  All hands happy at the news which I got from mate.  M & I drank aquadente a health to the Horn.  Shanghai & I drank my remnant of brandy & some of my Madeira.  Our exulting premature.  Exchanged wheels with Jack, I taking in first m watch the turn in wheel.  Quite suddenly it became a dead calm, oppressively silent.  I had hardly taken the wheel when an inky blackness rising a beam in the heavens, & the ship swinging round from W. to S. by E., notwithstanding all my efforts to prevent her, doubtless by currents, the watch went to work reducing sail, it raining steadily.  At the wheel I could hear them aloft furling & reefing, the tall figure of the mate pacing to & fro on the quarter deck, now & then casting an anxious eye astern & abeam, not knowing when the blast would break forth & looking at the compass & kindly telling me to be careful not to be thrown over the wheel as the long heavy Pacific swells drove the barke astern.  The watch furled g. t. sl, m. t. g. sl., spanker, j, clewed up both courses & double reefed f. t. sl.  The gloom & silence were fearful as the mate told me to strike 6 bells.  We had reduced all this sail in less than an hour, when we were relieved by the S. watch.  As we went below we could hear a distant sighing, the precursor of the gale, which now began to approach in the gloom.  We heard the S. watch springing to their work of reducing sail & the cap giving quick orders high above the roaring of the wind which had now reached us.  Part of us put on our coats & sat expecting to be called to reef, while the others turned in as quickly as possible.  I turned in, but could not sleep, the whistling of the gale through the rigging & the noise of the watch hauling & crying out to each other & the contrast between the death like calm & the mad life of the gale, all kept me awake.  I slept but little this watch.  The S. watch were 4 hours in furling the courses & close reefing the m. t. sl & furling f. t sl.  Miller said he would let the sails blow to H–l. before he would call one of our bloody watch.  When we went on deck we found everything snug as above.  We passed a few extra gaskets around the f. t. sl & j. & washed down quarter deck, this last slippery work, the ship rooled so on the heavy and increasing sea.  Fished for gonies — or albatrosses — but caught none, though we hooked several, fishing from stern.  Immense birds, saw one, while sitting on sea and riding beautifully & gracefully over the toppling surges, as a crested wave came on him suddenly, dive right through the wave & emerge shaking his head & wings.  They fly in the face of the wind which then whipped up the spoon drift with a rattling noise like hail.  Twilight scarcely leaves us now, a circumstance very comforting as an old navigator — Frobisher — says to such as “wander in unknown seas & long navigations, when both the winds & raging surges do pass their common course.”  This passage is very interesting to me, this Horn, the bug bear of mariners, whose waters are brooded over by continual storms & vexed by perpetual winds. 

Monday Jany 17th 1859. 

Under close reefed m. t. sl, spencer, main, & stsl.  Blowing a gale, very high sea, immense & long roolers.  Hove too, heading S.W. on starboard tack.  Sky changeable, now sunny now cloudy.  Wind began to haul yesterday P.M.  [——-] Set close reefed f. l. sl, f. sl & j. & spk. & m. sl, gale then breaking & wind hauling, heading W. by S.  Got newspapers from Cap, Gen Scotts news.  In first middle watch S. watch furled m. sl & j.  In our middle w cold raining steadily, very uncomfortable, all hands under the lee of weather cloths.  Steering W. by N. & W.  But wind again hauling & blowing strong, the S. watch reduced the sail to her present storm gear.  We dont make much progress to the westward with these southerly & northerly gales, as they drive us back to the eastward.  Think we are again to the eastward of the Cape. 

Tuesday Jany 18th.  

Gale still continuing, now under close reefed t. sls & reefed courses, m spc & stsl.  Very long & heavy sea.  Clear, a little cold, heading S. W.   Lat 58º Lon 69.41º This is the 3rd day of gale {From notebook} Yesterday:   Gale now kept us hove to for 2 days of the DiegosFirst day watch all hands close reefed over m. t. sl & our watch close reefed & furled f t. sl, I passing the earing.  Very heavy sea — first watch heavy & furious squall came down on us, but parted and went ahead & astern, black & ominous clouds, driven to leeward by the wind.  Fairly past Horn but far to southard.<}>  We have now lobscous morning & night, an uneatable mess of hard bread cooked in slush with a bit of meat here & there, a thin unseasoned, unpalatable food, which we all reject.  Meat only once a day.   This is too hard just now when we are working reefing, in wet & cold, to give us a compound not fit for hogs.  We are forced to eat bread & molasses, which causes heart burn.  All hands grumble & swear to leave ship first chance.  One barrel of beef is to last the whole ships company 15 days, & one of pork 12 days.  This is our allowance — plenty in cabin, starvation in forecastle.  Moreover the steward has refused us our allowance of molasses today — a quart per man — every Tuesday under the plea that it is dangerous to break out from the run in such rugged weather.  Poor Tom got a lecture from mate this A. M. for staying below an hour after his watch came on deck.  The S. watch are allowed by Miller to go below half of them 2 hours at a time while the ship is hove to, but our mate requires us to be on deck.  He allows us to go below for a short time, one or two at a time, to fill & light pipes & eat, but a longer stay is forbidden.  Tom is the sleepiest fellow I ever saw.  He will get asleep while smoking, sewing, reading or doing anything below.  Splendid moon light scene, the angry swollen sea lit up by the broad southern moon.  It is constantly too light to see Magellan clouds or Southern Cross.  Saw in m. watch a ship abeam under close reefed t. sls, reefed courses & staysl.  She soon passed ahead & out of sight, we then being under close reefed m. t. sl, sp., & stysl.  But in m. watch we set close reefed f. t. sl & now the S. watch have just reefed & set both courses.  Have given Antoine all my cough medicine.  I might have known better, for I half suspect that he is sogering a little till we are past the Horn.  {Wrong. Wrong, we carried the poor fellow ashore dying at Coral.}  Raw Eggs & Portugee take all the wheels while we are hove too. 

Wednesday Jany 19th 1859. 

Under all sails but spencers, steering about 2 points free, heading on, our course W. N. W. Heavy swell from westward surmounted by new waves from the fresh wind from southard. Lat 58.30º.  Rainy all morning & cold, very uncomfortable, decks slippery, ship pitching.  Gale began to break yesterday A. M., when we shook out the reefs from the topsls & set spk. & j.  Dead calm yesterday afternoon & all last night, but clewed up courses & hauled down jibs, but this A.M. a S. Easterly wind sprang up, when we set everything, but the wind hauling rapidly, we were at work all the morning bracing yards & hauling home sheets & tacks.  The wind is now steady from S. W. nearly, ship going about 9 knots.  Cold, Tem 42º.  Mate sent Tripp aloft last evening to look our for sails & ice — none seen.  All hands now scramble for the grub when it is salt junk.  This noon John Dimion & Chipps nearly fout over a piece of beef.  I drop everything when I hear the Doctor sing out “under” from the hatchway & rush with knife & fork to the meat pan.  A second or two too late will loose me my meat.  Without any ceremony I dive into the pan & get as big a share as I am able, pulling & snatching as if mad.  All do the same.  Such is forecastle life.  Got molasses yesterday, but it was crowded with dead cockroaches, & Charley Curtis, who was filling the kegs with Johnny, poured the stuff through a funnel into the kegs, poking & smashing up the cockroachess that constantly choked up the muzzle, thus distributing the animals more evenly throughout the molasses — legs, heads, wings, broken bodies &c. being mixed up with the precious liquid, with all the skill of a professional confectionist.  I do not eat the compound, & thus must go without sweetening for coffee & tea till better appears.  Had a conversation with Mate this A.M.  Talked about the winds & currents, the barometer & its action here in these Cape Horn latitudes, about albatrosses &c.  Sent him my B. Poets, to read the lay of “Ancient Mariner.”  Peculiarities of winds & currents & action of barometer very interesting.  Mate says that westerly winds in his experience are the prevailing winds all over the world; that the barometer indicated our last last gale 45 hours beforehand, it being at 28 9/10 & just before height of gale it rose 1/10; that it is now just as low; that b to give certain reliable indications of foul or fair weather must have the Thermometer at about 55º mean temperature; above or below this it becomes less reliable; that he has weathered the cape 9 times; that this has been a mild passage; that he has seen ice to the northard of our present latitude; that he knows no reason for the strong currents eastward. 

Thursday Jany 20th 1859. 

Now under every stich of canvass.  Heading W.N.W., or allowing for variation of compass, 22 degrees or about 2 points east variation, heading N.W.  Wind S. W., rather strong, sea rugged, going about 5 knots.   Cloudy, Tem 46º.  {From note book of Wednesday = Supper time = We left ship under all sail.  On turning out found her under double reefed t. sls, courses, spk., stysl & j, blowing a young gale.  Steering 3 points from W.N.W., spanking along in beautiful style, jumping over the heavy seas, heeling a lee & throwing the seas continually over and abaft her bow, wind whipping spray about like smoke.  Never have seen the ship run so, going like a race horse.  Fine & splendid scene.  Cold, Tem 41º.  It is a little singular that the S. watch has done nearly all the reducing of sail since we made Staten land.  They are sure to take in sail whenever they turn out.  Miller is mad thereat, but swears he wont call our watch to assist, though every rag blows away.  I think the mate, aware of this resolve, contrives to keep on sail as long as possible, that Miller may have the pleasure of taking it in.  Our watch can reef topsails in half the time that the S. watch can.  Goland busy with half a dozen green hands on a yard.  We are crowding sail to get to northard.  First night watch = Just shook out reefs from m.t.sl.  Ther risen from 40º to 42º, wind lulling, sea going down, clear fine & broad moon, like harvest moon.  Variations of compass 22 degrees, or about 2 points as laid down in charts, wind hauling till we headed by compass N. W. by N. or N. N. W.  Our extreme South Lat has been 58.44º  Ther risen this watch to 46º, 6 degrees in 4 hours, cloudy & little rainy.  Morning watch = Set full or whole topsails, shaking out every reef, loosed g. t. sl, but furled it again.  Large ship bound home passed us on weather beam under close reefed f. tsl, double reefed m. t. sl, stysl & m & mizzen staysails.  She soon passed out of sight.  The watch have now set everything as above.  Am obliged to drink unsweetened coffee & tea – or eat cockroaches.  Goland & Dutchman are laid up, one with sore hand, the other with boil on neck.  All most of us have sore hands, the cold weather & exposure aggravating any little cut or bruse.  Miller makes all manner of fun of poor Thompson, who I am compelled to think is almost an idiot.  He has literally no mind.  He cant recollect the name of any rope, while it is impossible for him to remember any 3 consecutive points of the compass, though Johnny C. L. has been his instructor, and a merry one too, night after night.  The poor fellow blubbers out at everything, though he is 26 yrs old, with a full beard, a fine looking man if he had any “speculations in his eye.”  “What have we been furling, Thompson,” says Miller.  “T. g. brace, Sir,” replys Thompson.  “What rope is that?” pointing to j. halliards.  “Forebrace, Sir.”  There is no end to his absurdities.  He goes aloft as if he were mounting the scaffold, while he will sit for hours, crying on deck, saying that his head aches.  I think his mind is wholly destroyed.

Saturday Jany 22nd 1859. 

Under close reefed f. t. sl, double reefed m. t. sl, m. spc. & stysl Steering full & by, heading S. W. by S. true S. W. by W.  Cloudy rainy, Tem 46º, heavy sea, gale breaking.  Broke out bread & water this morning watch, working in a cold rain from 3 till breakfast, though cloudy & weather very thick, yet as light as day.  {From my notebook of yesterday.  Friday Thursday  Blowing a gale all morning.  First watch below, under all sail, all day heading full & by N. W. by N., true N. by W.  First day watch tacked ship & stood S. S. W. as we were too near land & heading for it, Cap giving orders, Mate bending new sheets & tacks.  Lat 56.41º Lon about 71 W.   Tem 48º going all day about 4 knots in a heavy sea which knocked her aback.  Sawed & split wood this P.M., just furled m. t. g.sl,   & I et  R. Eggs furled f. j., a little cold, but all hands glad that we are getting to northard.  2nd mate teaching Thompson ropes, slow work.  In first watch S watch double reefed f. t. sl; in middle watch we double reefed m. t. sl.  Fine wind all night heading S. W. by S., true S. W. by W.  2nd mate gave up Thompson as a bad egg.  Friday:  Blowing a gale all morning – rainy, cold, worst watch yet, heading S. W.,  true W. by S.  Just before we went to dinner all hands furled m. sl in a cold driving rain, blowing a gale as we went below.  S. watch went to work as usual reducing sail in a furious wind.  In morning Mate & I had a discussion about variation of compass.   Mate got confused, thought the variation west.  We brought out our navigation & settled the question in my favor — that the variation runs East.   5 minutes after 1 when we went below to dinner, turned in with pants on which I havent taken off for over a week.  S. watch reduced sail to double reefed m. t. sl, close reefed f. t. sl, both spcs & spk.  We in dog watch hauled up & furled spk & f. spc.  Wheel got away from me as the ship fetched a heavy lurch, & knocking me against the galley heavily.  The wheel & tiller went like a flash to leeward spank against the cabin gangway, denting the boards.  I was bewildered for a moment, but before the cap & mate, who sprang towards the wheel, could reach it, I was on the wheel with a firm grasp.  I<t> was a narrow escape — I might have had my neck broken.  The wheel kicked violently all night.  Weather very thick – rainy, cold ,nasty weather all around.  Poor Antoine crying & saying that he should die.  First n. watch the very worst watch yet — cold, wind furious, a cold driving rain, ship pitching & heeling aport, decks wet, but cold, all hands shivering, impossible to walk & keep warm.  We passed the long, dreary hours under the lee of the weather cloth on quarter deck.  I sick of C. Horn & wishing myself in a comfortable bed.  My turn in trick, wheel kicking very much.  New gale is breaking & I can hear the S. watch making sail.  Clothing all wet, impossible to dry it, bed & bedding & everything in bunk damp.  I do not read any now, but sleep all I can, the weather is so bad.  It is very hard turning out to go on deck in the wet & cold without clothing, but there is no escape.  I endure the exposure as well as any one.  Mate says he cant stand such weather.  Was forced the other night to eat from very hunger — cockroach molasses & bread.  I imagine the vermin transformed into manilla beans or some such spice, & shut my eyes as I swallow.  But after all its pretty tough.  Cap gave Thompson an immense dose of salts, the universal sea medicine.

Sunday Jany 23, 1859. 

Now under all sail but f. t. g. sl.  Dead calm, sea gone down, long swells from westward.  Steering full & by N. W. by W. true N. W. by N.  Bright clear day with clouds here and there.  Tem 47º.  Wind died away this A.M.  Pleasant, two ships in sight, one bound homeward, all sail, royals & studding sails below & aloft, a small brarke; the other bound after us under all sails. {From my notebook of sat., Jan. 22nd.  Before finishing dinner we were called to tack ship, tacked and stood to our present course.  Went below & finished dinner.   Wind gone down but a little fresh, rainy & cold.  First watch below, heavy squalls from windward, weather thick, wind increasing, looking very dark & threatening to windward, cold everywhere but when covered in one’s bunk.  Tem 42º.  Cap saw sun for an instant this P. M. peeping out, and ran with his quadrant to get his latitude, but in vain.  The sun disappeared almost before he could look twice.  It has now been thick weather for several days, & only dead reckoning is made, & by this our Lat is 58.20, Lon 73 — so says Mate.  Under double reefs, courses, spc’s, spk, stysl & j.  Middle watch beautiful weather, moon & stars, Southern Constellations brilliant.  First clear night since we made Staten Island, but decidedly cold.  Shanghai & I walked the deck to keep warm & talked of shore matters.  M & I eat some roast mutton that “Old Woman” sent Antoine, who could not eat it, but gave it to us.  Hands quite sore.  We talk of throwing Chipps overboard for bringing us head winds, a veritable Jonah is Chipps.  Cabbage, duff & pork for dinner.  I divided the whole grubJohnny took his share of beef this morning aft & showed it to “Old Man.”  Old Man said nothing but told Cook to give us more meat.  Our allowance has not been enough to give us even a tolerable meal & so the “grab game” has prevailed:  two or three have generally monopolized the meat.  Our bread is excellent — I prefer it to duff.  Our meat is first rate — we have plenty of bread, but very little meat.  I hope the Doctor will give us a decent allowance.  I am most confounded by one of the Portugee twanging an old guitar, without any tune, raising a din, distracting & deafening .

Monday Jany 24th 1859. 

Under f. t. stysl, whole m. t. sl, double reefed f. t. sl & f. sl,  wind a little on larboard quarter, but nearly astern, blowing hard.  Heavy sea on, heading W. true W.N.W.  Tem 45º,  ship rooling very much but spanking along about 9 knots, cloudy, weather thick, occasional rain,  disagreeable, if we were not heading for warm weather.  Wind commenced to haul to N. & E.  Last P. M. when we braced yds under all sail but spc’s.  Towards night or about 8 bells P.M., it again hauled a little to southard untill it was dead aft — steering ship as above — wind freshened till we were running about 9 knots, which we have kept up till now.  S. watch reduced sail in middle watch to double reefed f. t. sl, whole m. sl, f. sl & stysl,, leaving the m. sl clewed up, but not furled.   We went to work on it as soon as we turned out and furled it to complete satisfaction of mate, though 5 men in our watch are disabled:  Dutchman, Tom, Chipps, John Taylor & Mr Goland, all of them having hands so sore with boils & swellings that they remain below, leaving our watch much crippled.  But we are smart, and furled first one yd arm, then the other & then hauled up the bunt, making what would pass for a good port (?) furl.  Two men were kept at the wheel, Mr Goland with one hand standing with first Shanghai & then myself, 3 hours nearly, & M. & Tripp finishing up the remaining hour & half.  Magnificent scene, the ship pursued by the capped & swelling waves, like white mouthed hounds, & dashing through the waters as if fleeing for dear life like a stag.  We have not made such a run since we left New Bedford — I think we must have run over 2 1/2 degrees since the wind hauled.  Furled m. t. gal, a very hard & dangerous job.  I was at wheel, but all the able men went aloft, & two of them were nearly blown off yd arm, the sail slatting heavily, giving us true sea music.  Shanghai came down with bloody fingers from beating them to get them warm.  They were a long time getting in the sail & at one time thought of giving up the job, but a sudden luff enabled them to stow quick.  The canvass was stiff & wet & cold & Shanghai said he wouldnt do the [the] same again for the whole ship.  Now keep the forecastle closed up, with both doors & scuttle tight.  It is the only way to keep warm, but then – whew! – it needs all the poetry of Coleridge to describe the “well defined & several stinks” that pervade our little home.  Santa Anna thumbs a guitar, all hands keep time with feet & hands, while Jack and M. dance the chamarita, (?) a Portugee dance, all with pipes in mouths, puffing out smoke, while I join for a while & then turn in or read or write in this faithful — & classic — journal.  Have tried in vain to beat into Shanghai’s head the variation of compass; he damns the variation, and asks why they dont get a decent compass.  Very cold today.  Two sail seen ahead last P.M., one with royals & stunsails aloft.  Jack shiftless fellow having sold a good part of his clothing is now begging the loan of a pair of drawers.  He sold his great coat just before we reached the Horn, & without bed clothes which he has either stowed away or sold, he is now turned in to Curly’s bunk.  What Curly will say to this I dont know, but wouldn’t have him turn into my bunk & tumble up everything.  Jack is the most improvident fellow I ever saw.

Tuesday Jany 25th 1859. 

Now under every rag, full & by, heading N.N.W. true N.   Sea quiet, wind light & ahead, cloudy a little sunny, Tem 48º,  going about 6 knots.  Lat this M 53.41º Lon about 80.18º.  Wind continued fresh from S. & E. all yesterday a little on quarter, and we had made a great run at M, having made since the preceding P. M. — 4 oclock — 4 degrees of Lon & 1 1/2 of Lat.  Lon 77.47º making this much of westing steering all day true W.N.W. to avail ourselves of a S. W. wind and to claw off from the land.   We ran nearly all day under whole m. tsl, double reefed f. t. sl, f.sl & stysl, making on an average 10 knots.  Our watch had hardly gone below in first dog watch when we were called to clew down m. t. sl, which we double reefed in double quick time; set m. sl., j. the ship under this sail at one time making about 13 knots, almost jumping out of the water, heavy seas rushing after her.  Wind hauled and lulled in first m watch when S. watch shook out reefs from m. t. sl, set m. t. gal, & jibs, spk. & g. t. sl; & in middle watch we set everything else.  Beautiful night, moon & stars out, one very brilliant and large star in S. E. that resembled Jupiter.  All these southern constellations are very brilliant, Southern cross among them now high in heavens.  Ther. 46, Lat 55.30, Lon 78.35.  Fairly round Horn, for now to northard of the stormy cape.  Today we have a foretaste of Pacific weather, and all hands are jubilant thereat.  Boatsteerers cleaning irons and overhauling their boats.  I have a very sore finger, but I take pride in narrating that I have thus far not lost a single night from any sickness or disability, weathering the cape always on duty, while 6 of our watch have been laid up, and are now off duty.  Men accustomed to work, but not so hardy as I am fortunate enough to be. 

Wednesday Jany 26th 1859. 

Just clewed up f.t.g.sl, under everything else.  Heading true N.N.W., smooth sea, wind a little fresh, going about 6 knots, Ther 49º, cloudy, but clearing up.  Made a fine run last night averaging 7 or 8 knots close hauled, ship going finely through the smooth sea, weather thick most of night.  Large merchantman passed us about 10 first watch under all sail, going two knots to our one, about 1/4 mile distant on weather beam.  Magellan clouds seen last night for a few minutes, first time for 3 weeks.  Finger very sore.  Mast heads again, an earnest of good weather.  Just taken a right whale porpoise.  10 dollars & better grub for the first whale.  Thus we have fairly weathered the Horn, in 14 days after making Staten land, with 5 heavy gales.  Mate says it is the pleasantest passage he has yet made, this being his 10th passage round this stormy Cape.  We are now rapidly coming on whaling ground & warm weather.  I look for the advent of cockroaches & their comrads. 

Sunday February 13th 1859. 

Cruising off Masafuera.  My hand is just recovering from a very bad swelling.  I am unable to write.  Johnny cut my hair this A.M. in forehold.  He is the barber of the ship. 

Tuesday February 15th 1859. 

My hand slowly improving, but two middle fingers quite stiff.  I tried to go to the mast head yesterday afternoon but could get no farther than m. t. g. yard, there being no strength in my hand, which I am unable to close.  I told Joe when I returned to send up Santa Anna I got down with difficulty.  I found when I reached the deck the mate and several hands looking at a large blue shark that was swimming slowly backwards & forwards along side of the ship, his dorsal fin just out of the water, which rippled as the  monster lazily sculled himself along in the calm sea.  It was a dead calm, the topsails clewed down & courses clewed up, the ship rooling on the long swell from the westward and the sun hastening through a cloudless sky.  The sailors say that the shark that has now followed us several days does so because there is a sick man aboard, poor Antoine, who is now very low.  A horrible thought that tis the fatal instinct of the savage fish impells him to wait day after day patiently — I hope not certainly — for a human corpse.  We all keep the fact carefully from Antoine.  It would drive me mad if I were so sick to hear that my grave, a living monster, was following the ship, awaiting my death.  We have struck one shark with a crow, but not fatally, the iron being rusty, but still the fierce monsters haunt the ship, these tigers of the sea. 

Wednesday February 16th 1859. 

Calm for two days back, but now a fine breeze.   Cap & Chipps been making a rudder for Cap’s boat.  Cap very ingenious.  Tripp sung out “Thar she white waters” this A.M. & mate just after dinner sung out again “Thar she breaches” in a regular scream.  Cap tacked ship, and we are now running down to what we hope are whales, ship on larboard tack.  Cap looked at my hand last night, kindly advising me to work the fingers to keep them from remaining stiff, while Mrs W said she would give me some sweet (?) oil to oil the joints, at the same time telling me that Cap would teach me navigation just as soon as I was ready.  Very kind of her & Old Man. I thanked her, told her I would wait till my hand got well.  Old Man sent me some raw potatoes to eat to avert scurvy.  Jack has the scurvy in his jaw & gums, but he has had the scurvy before – last voyage.  Mate making a Jacobs Ladder for officers to use aloft when going to mast head.  15 or 16 feet long, rounds 11 inches long, but with 1/2 inch score in each end for rope — only 10 inches.  14 rounds 12 inches apart seized on with 4 turns of double foxes above & 4 below & crossed in eye of roundChipps been 3 days in getting out rounds, having altered them several times.  Beautiful nights now.  I cant stand night watches yet, indeed I can do nothing of consequence with my right hand, as I am unable to close it as it is almost without strength.  Thursday

February 17th 1859 

Cloudy, wind somewhat high, a little rough, the first thick weather we have had for two weeks.  The white water yesterday proved to be caused by grampuses.  Shanghai woke me up this AM, at 3 1/2 to see an eclipse of the moon.  Very fine and cloudless night, stars very bright, and “out in full force.”  The eclipse very fine & distinct, continued eclipsed till it set.  This eclipse, according to my almanac, was visible throughout the United States.  Began to blow hard yesterday P.M., when we reduced sail to double reefed t. sls, & f. sl & stysl.  Weather still quite thick———–I left off my journal Jany 26, my finger swelling & becoming painful.  I was unable to use my hand.  Old Man, noticing this asked what the matter was.  I showed him my hand; as usual in such cases he said very little, but that night he put on a poultice of indian meal, very thick.  This drawing stoutly put me to intense pain & for 3 days & 4 nights I suffered exquisite torments, my hand swelling till from the pressure between my middle fingers the fingers were forced apart and stood off from each other stiff, red, the skin stretched almost to bursting; my wrist & arm inflamed; and all this producing such constant and severe pain that I was well nigh distracted.  The poultice seemed to make matters worse; I couldnt sleep; I couldnt read; I couldnt walk, for I was nearly doubled up with pain.  I lost all appetite, all strength.  On the 4th day the Cap lanced my second finger, and from that time the pain decreased, till it disappeared.  A great deal of corruption was drawn out.  The Cap was extremely tender in his treatment of my hand, pouring on laudanum to relieve the pain, lancing with caution and so tenderly as could he, and using every means in his power to make me comfortable, washing my hand twice a day in warm water, and cutting away dead skin, pressing out matter &c in a manner that gained my affection & respect.  Mrs Wilson sent me preserved meats, pickles, oysters, cakes, buttered bread, & seconded her husband in all his cure.  I feel a great deal of respect for both these kind people, & shall repay it when I can.  I dont know what to call my disease.  Six of us had similar swelling on the fingers, but none in any degree like mine.  We were almost round the Horn when they first made their appearance.  The Cap thought it a kind of scurvy, but I think it was the result of exposure to wet and cold, our hands getting chafed, the skin broken, & the wet and cold agravating the little sores into large and painful swellings; though from the intense pain attending mine, I am inclined to think there was some virus or poison in my blood.  It was undoubtedly amusing to spectators to see us, six, marching in single file to the galley every night and morning at the call of “Main yard men ahoy,” and waiting our turns as the Cap — turned Doctor — with an immense amount of indian meal poultice & old rags patched up each finger, calling out as he turned out his patients, all poulticed:  “Here No 3” or “No 4”.  This was all amusing enough & ludicrous to bystanders and grinning “American Seamen,” but to us objects of so much mirth, the scene was anything but funny; though after the pain subsided, it became rather pleasant trotting aft.  I hope to be well enough to turn to again in a day or two.  The Cap treated all of us with a care & skill that surprised me.  I supposed that we should be left to take care of ourselves, the case in may ships.  But we were not only cared for, but allowed to stay below untill we thought fit to return to duty.  All now on duty but myself.  Poor Antoine seems to be growing worse — he is now confined to his bunk.  Miller has never done anything for him, nor even inquired after him, though he so brutally struck him when he was first sick.

Monday February 18th 1859. 

Still cruising of Masafuera, to the windward & westward.  Weather constantly thick, blowing hard all the while, rough, constantly under double reefs.  We have taken two bull whales in the last week and a half, and have now over a hundred bbls of oil — but I reserve that page to an account of our passage from the Horn, and shall describe the Captain and cutting in of the whales another day.  I have been so busy lately that I have had no time to write.  After we left the horn and were fairly to the northard of the straights we came into pleasant weather and smooth seas — truly a Pacific Ocean.  Mast heads were again established, the boats overhauled and placed on the cranes and made ready for lowering.  All the sail were unbent except the mizzen sails & staysail & jibs, and cloths stitched on where the[y] would chafe against the rigging, and bent on again, the close reef points unbent from the f. sl.  New served & parceled ropes bent on all the yards, the running rigging overhauled, royal yds sent aloft for the lookout men to lean on, and everything put in order for a cruise.  Off St Carlos we gamed the barke Citizen of Nantucket, with 2100 bbls, 2000 sperm, out 40 months, bound home in March.  One chap, a bright looking fellow, told me he had 300 lashes given him for cutting the 3rd mate in his hand while he had him by the hair beating him for some little offense.  We gamed one other ship before we made Massa terra or Selkirks Island.  Fine weather almost constantly, but I couldnt enjoy it on account of my hand.  I read all I could, but found the confinement of the forecastle hardly supportable.  I missed the gaming & the work on the sails & rigging.  We made Massa terra one fine morning and heading for it under light winds reached it by night, when this island so connected with romance lifted its high lands and lofty peaks against the evening sky, while the sun setting behind it and gilding its mountain tops, gave an effect of wild & romantic beauty — too fine for description.  Two ships were laying too quite near shore, and as the shades of evening quietly closed around this ocean isle, so sonscarated [sic] to pure romance by the genius of DeFoe, I could scarcely sleep, so beautiful was the evening; the sea so quiet, the gales so gentle, the associations so dear of the happy hours spent in the delightful fiction of Robinson Crusoe; and the island itself being in a fine moonlight that softened & mellowed the rough & mountainous aspect of the background.  My pleasure was however dashed by the reflection that I could not go ashore, the state of my hand forbidding me to handle an oar.  I however asked the Captain the next morning if I could pull ashore with him, but he said it might cost me my hand, and telling me, he should touch at the island in about five weeks when peaches were ripe.  I had to be satisfied with this & watched the boat containing the Cap & wife as it was rowed ashore with pure envy.  We lay off and on 2/3 of the day, till the boat returned, meanwhile being gamed by the two ships the Hector of N. B. & A. Houghton of Fall River.  I spent a merry time with the gamers, each having something amusing to relate.  I can never forget the magnificent scene at sunrise of that day, in the stately march of clouds across the summits of the mountain peaks.  The Cap could get no fresh meat only a few potatoes, but had a fine time with the skippers from the two ships who were ashore.  Towards evening we bore away to the westward for Massafuera, off which we are now cruising, and made it the next morning.  Since then we have been crusing on this ground, for the first few days constantly meeting with sails, and gaming several ships — the Virginia [&] Catalpha both of which have made very poor voyages.  Before our present ground to the southward & westward we have hardly seen a sail. 

Tuesday March 1st 1859 

A little over 3 weeks since we gamed the Virginia with 700 sp — out 42 months.  They hadnt taken a whale for 7 months, all her crew forward but one had left her, her present crew being cruisers, yet since then we have taken two whales, and have now our 100 bbls of oil on deck in casks.  About 6 oclock on the morning of Friday 18th our watch below we were awakened by the bull voice of Miller shouting out from the mast head “There she white waters,” “There she breaches,” and so our watch was called to get ready our boats for lowering.  We all sprang on deck and found the officers getting their boats in order.  Men in the rigging while crys of “Thar she breaches” came frequently from aloft.  The whales were right ahead, and in about half an hour the Cap gave orders to lower, when the mate lowered followed immediately by the 2nd mate.  We wore ship & then the 3rd mate lowered, the Cap remaining aboard & not lowering, the weather being thick & no good ship keeper aboard.  The mate was pulling to windward when the Cap at the mast head seeing a blow to leeward waved his hat in that direction, and the mate following the signal came unexpectedly on a bull whale.  The mate put his boat along side, and Tripp planted his iron in the whales head forward of his eyes.  The whale jumped as the boat sterned and ran some distance to leeward.  We could see the white water that his hump caused as he dashed through the waves, the little whale boat foaming along and riding the sea finely.  The 2nd mate attempted to make fast but couldnt, so he stood away for some blows to leeward.  But the 3rd mate met the whale as he turned to windward & his boat steerer gave him an iron in his back.  It was now very exciting, the whale dragging the two boats after him, running a little while, then sounding, and as he came up, raising his square built head over half his body out of the water 20 or so feet or raising his flukes perpendicularly and smiting the sea in a way to dash water in every direction.  We could see the mates boat pull up and the mate dart his lance into the whale, and then stern away from his flukes; then the 3rd mate do the same, the men hauling on the line till alongside, then taking their oars to stern all.  The whale carried the boats in a circle around the ship, and at one time was so near that we could distinctly see everything — the whale dashing the water with his flukes and at last spouting blood.  Pretty soon the Cap gave orders to wear ship and we stood for the boats that were now fast to a dead whale.  Meanwhile we got up fluke chain, lead & buoy (?) &c, & made everything ready to make the prize boat when it came alongside.  The 3rd mate now pulled alongside and came aboard, after hauling up his boat to our cranes.  We were soon up with the mate who was waiting for us.  He pulled up to our bow and passed the bight of his line aboard, one end of which was fast to the whales flukes that lay a little distance to windward, only a little of his side visible as the heavy seas washed & foamed around him; and the other end & rest of line being in the mates boat who now steered away from the ship and about a two ships length from the ship, lay to to haul in the slack of the line.  We hauled away on the part fast to the whale, paying out the slack for the mate, till we had the whale along side; when we passed a chain around his flukes by means of a lead & buoy (?), and then passing the chain through the hawser hole forward lashed it to the bitts at the heel of the bow sprit.  The whale was now ready for cutting in.  The 2nd mate by this time had come aboard after falling overboard from his own boat, while steering.  We then cut in and tryd out the whale finishing the job on the following Sunday, and stowing 57 bbls of oil.  I was a good deal disappointed that the Old Man didnt lower though I could not have gone myself on account of my sore hand.  On Wednesday following about 4 bells our watch on deck, while we were cleaning up the try pots & tryworks, Tripp sung out from mast head “thar she breaches,” and almost immediately after cried out “sperm whale right along side.”  We all rushed to the weather rail and could see a large whale breach as he dashed off to windward and astern.  The Cap who was aloft sung out to the mate to wear ship, and soon as this was done, came down from the l. g. yard, and ordered the boats to lower, directing the mate to stand along on the wind for the whales which were now ahead.  The mate instantly lowering, got the start of the other boats and got far ahead of them.  It was very rugged, with a heavy & increasing sea, the wind blowing almost a gale.  The 2nd & 3rd mate were now following the mate on our weather bow, neither gaining on the other, but “neck & neck,” when the Cap at the mast head descried the whales to leeward, and waved his hat in that direction.  The 3rd mate was about a ships length from our bow, and we sung out to him to pull to leeward.  He evidently couldnt hear us, the wind was so high, but a[t] last understanding apparently the Cap signal, he crossed our fore foot, and ran down before the wind on the whales followed by the 2nd mate.  The mate who was now about a mile ahead eased of his sheet and ran down for a solitary blow, about 2 points off our lee bow, while the other boats were off our lee beam and a little abaft it.  The mate’s boat jumped before the wind as if mad, and met the whale, which they had seen blow, heading for them and as the boat darted along, propelled by the heavy seas & the strong wind, Tripp darted his iron, but so great was the impetus of the boat, & so unsteady her motion, that Tripp, unexperienced as yet, missed his aim and shot over the whale the iron pole just grazing his small.  Tripp almost cried from disappointment, and the mate indulged in a little swearing solely for Tripps benefit, but it was of no use, for the whale sounded, and the mate lay too waiting for another blow.  Meanwhile the 3rd mate, who caught sight of the whales, bore down on them, but the sea was so high that it was impossible for Mr Goland to keep sight of any one whale, so Manuel, his boat steerer, stood up in the bow and conned  the boat, keeping sight all the while of a whale that was a little ahead, but on the point of going down.  The boat going before the wind brot up fairly on the back of the whale before she stopped, the waves & wind urging her on, & M, standing up plunged his iron into the whale and surged it down with both hands till the iron was in to the socket, the boats bow meanwhile actually resting, grounded on the whales back.  “Stern all for your lives” shouted the 3rd mate as he saw M plunge in his iron, and sterning with a will they got out of the way of the whales flukes, as the whale raising himself half out of the water suddenly turned and dashing to windward in an instant swept the line from the chock in the bow and taughtening it suddenly with his rapid motion, caused the line to sweep along the boats side, tearing up in an instant a rowlow (?) with its cleats, grazing the Dutchmans back and taking his hat, wrenching M oar from his hand, and catching Curly on the breast hurled him senseless a boats length into the sea.  M. sung out to Mr Goland that there was a boat astern that would pick up Curly, so Goland kept fast to the whale; that now, turning again, dashed along for half a mile to leeward, and then sounded.  The mate who now saw that Goland was fast bore down to make fast & assist him, but seeing oars floating in the water, headed for them to recover them, not seeing anything of Curly, indeed not knowing that any man was overboard.  But as he drew near he suddenly cried out “Therse a man in the water, a dead man.  Pull men, pull,” and the men pulled away, breaking one oar in their efforts and losing two others in their excitement as they hauled poor Curly on board, perfectly senseless just as he was sinking for the 3rd time.  Indeed they thought him dead, and recovering their oars pulled for the ship, heavy work oppressed by gloom, and pulling in the face of the heavy sea & wind.  But in a few moments Curly opened his eyes, when they revived him and pulling along side passed him on deck — pale, faint, and almost dead.  The Cap sent him below and gave him some hot drinks, but for the remainder of the day he was in terrible pain from the effect of the blow & exhausted, for he could swim but a little, had gone down three times, and was making for an oar when his strength failed him.  He fainted, and in this condition was picked up by the mate, the waves beating him in the face and burying him beneath the water.  It was a marvelous escape — two minutes more and it would have been too late.  The mate, mad at Tripp, and angry that he was baulked in his attempt to make fast with the 3rd mate, came on deck for some more oars, swearing that Curly had jumped over board, and with an oath declaring that he wouldnt pick up an other man; that if they jumped overboard, they must stand the consequences.  He soon however put off again and stood away for the other boats, both of which were now fast to the whale and each of their officers watching & taking many opportunities to lance their immense prey.  Goland was the first to draw blood, & Miller finished him.  The whale gave them no more trouble after his first dash to windward, but alternately sounding & running; or dashing his flukes about; he was soon dispatched before the mate could return.  The 1st & 2nd mates now came aboard, the mate furious at his repeated disappointment, and talking very loud, but soon calmed down to good humor and assisted in making everything ready for the whale.  We ran dow[n] to Mr Goland and taking in the line as before, passed two fluke chains around his flukes, as before we lost some 6 or 7 bbls from the fluke chain parting while the flukes & part of the small were still uncut in.  This was owing to the ignorance and unskillfulness of Miller who detached the blanket piece from the body before the flukes were hooked on to the cutting in tackle, & the weight of the carcass parted the chain.  As the body sunk under the ships bottom to windward, the ship hove too & drifting too leeward & thus causing the body to pass to windward.  But this time with two fluke chains we made the whale fast about dusk, and then the ship hove too, with topsails clewed down & wheel lashed, we waited till morning to cut in.  We stood boats crew watches that night, the boatsteerers drawing by lot the hours for their crews to stand watch.  My watch was the 3rd one, but about two hours before my watch all hands were called on deck — one of the fluke chains had parted, so great was the strain, the sea being so high that when the ship rose on a wave and the whale sank it jerked the chains, till one of them parted from the strain.   We passed a large cable laid (?) hawser around his flukes & passing it over the chock on the bow hauled it taught and made fast around the windlass bitts.  This held till morning.  The next morning a day break all hands were called & binding on to the heavy chain pendants lashed to the main mast head, the immense cutting in tackle and passing stages over the side, we wore ship to get the whale to leeward.  The 1st & 2nd mates had got over the side & had commenced to cut a hole for the hook, when Frank P, who had been ordered to put his wheel hard up to wear ship, kept the wheel so, unobserved by any one, till the ship got aback, and the whale — swept by the leeward motion of the ship under her keel — parted in a moment the large hawser, & the fluke chain insecurely fastened, slipped from the bits, and the whale was adrift and almost immediately a considerable distance from the ship.  {Here I must not forget to mention that when the whale was first brot along side and made fast, after everything was prepared for the night, the “Old Man” call out for all hands to lay aft & splice the main brace.  Though we had supposed that all the braces were sound, unstranded, yet it was astonishing to see with what unanimous alacrity all hands lay aft to the booby hatch when the Cap with a large pitcher of New England Rum spliced the main brace to the entire satisfaction of his crew — not excepting his officers.  It was amusing to see the fellows come forward after a stiff glass, Raw Eggs kicking up his heels, & poor Thompson, jokingly accused by the Cap of coming after a second glass, solemnly denying that very just accusation.  A more noisy supper was never had by all hands than we had that night.   We did not splice the main brace when we took the first whale, & the men were grumbling thereat, but this entirely silenced their complaints.}  The Cap swore at Frank and rushed aft as I thought to strike him, shouting out “see then what your damned carelessness has done” &c. but he couldnt stop to indulge in swearing, but issued rapid orders to wear ship.  We wore ship, and then the mate was directed to lower and again make fast.  The mate, 2nd mate, Tripp & Ellis, Johnny & Joe, sprang into the boat which was instantly lowered in a tremendous sea, the wind fairly blowing a gale.  In a few minutes the boat was invisible from the ships deck as we stood away, was soon lost sight of altogether.  It was thought by many that the boat could’nt live in such a sea, that she would inevitably be swamped, but I had confidence in her officers & crew.  We stood on for some time away from the direction the boat had taken, then wore ship and stood for her again.  But for a long time we could see nothing of the whale or boat.  The Cap sent men to each mast head to look out for the boat.  In about half an hour she was seen fast to the whale.  We ran down to her, and as she became visible from deck, it was a surprise to all that she lived in such a sea that was now very high & wild.  The whale in tow was thrashed about by the seas, flocks of whale birds were circling around him, & an immense albatross was wheeling directly over the body.  After a great deal of trouble we again made the whale fast, & the mate came aboard declaring that he had been nearly swamped several times.  It now being about eleven, all hands were ordered to breakfast.  Charley the Portugee was now laid up in his bunk a second time a victim to the brutality of the 2nd mate, who had knocked him in the face, blac[k]ening one eye, and striking him with a boat bucket in the ribs, all this because the little fellow could’nt understand english while in the boat.  Ive spoke to the Old Man about him and asked if he could’nt be transferred to some other boat.  The Old Man said nothing but went below and looked at the poor boy as he lay in his bunk crying from pain.  After breakfast all hands were called to cut in.  The whale now lay with his flukes a little abaft the bow, and his head reaching as far as the main chains, the water foaming and dashing over him as he lay on his side, his head & hump under water, and a portion of his side with a fin projecting a foot or two above the waves, reminding me of an immense india rubber fish, so elastic did he seem as he buct up and down with the violence of the waves, of a dusky graw [sic] color in the water, with large whitish spots here and there, but with black skin when the blubber was cut in and on deck, his eye small and 12 or 15 feet from his nose, his square built head a third of his entire length, somewhat like this [—picture—] with a long narrow jaw, the end of the under jaw closing with the upper about 3 feet from the nose with there rounds off, the jaws white and glistening in the water, two pectoral fins disproportioned one would think to the size of the whale, with bones like those in a man’s hand, his hump rising about 3 feet, and about 2/3 distance from the extremity of head, and the body rapidly narrowing in the small terminating in immense flukes horizontal to the body, the source of the whales motion and by which he handles himself as lively as a little fish.  The cutting in tackle had already been sent aloft and lashed to large chain pendants first around the head of the main mast, the blocks 2 1/2 feet long — 6 of them – with falls of six inch manilla cable passing forward and around the windlass.  The Cap now standing in the waist gangway with a circular spade on a long pole cut a round hole in the side abaft the head through the blubber, & Manuel with a monkey rope around him watching his chance sprang overboard landing on the whale, and thrusting one leg into the hole, steadied himself by the monkey rope with the other his hands.  Tripp went over for the first whale, but not so quick as M, was unable for a long time to get on the whale & his leg in the hole, but between the whale & ships side, tried a long time to clamber up, spluttering in the water, as occasionally sinking beneath the surface, he would rise & renew his attempts.  I confess I watched him with decided alarm, as sharks were swimming in all directions, very bold fellows, thrusting their noses out of the water & attempting to wiggle on to the whale.  A large iron hook was now passed over to M., the point of which he passed into the hole, not without difficulty as the whale rising and sinking in the waves, would now raise him almost level with the ships deck, and again sink him under water, from which  he would emerge blowing the water from his mouth & nose.  The mate & Cap were now over the side on a stage lashed to main chains, & 2nd mate on a stage lashed over the side just forward of the gangway.  Each of them armed with a long & keen spade, & when a shark got to familiar, with a single chop, they would send the rascal spinning around like a kitten after its tail.  The hook now fairly craught [sic] in the hole & connected with one of the cutting in tackles, the officers chopped around the hole through the blubber to detach a blanket piece about 4 feet wide, and all the foremast hands heaved away at the windlass till a blanket piece was stripped about 8 feet from the body of solid blubber, when the strain on this piece raising the whale a little out of the water & keeping him more steady in the water, we ceased heaving while the Cap & mate commenced to cut off the head.  This is done by means of long spades grasped by both hands and plunged into the flesh & blubber till the required separation is made.  To cut off the head is a very hard task, the Cap & mate calling for a fresh spade every few minutes & keeping the carpenter busy in grinding.  The head is cut of just above the upper jaw and thence in an oblique line to the back.  The lower jaw is severed & separately hoisted in on deck, while the head is left afloat till the blubber is all cut in from the body.  Meanwhile a hole is cut in the end where it is cut off & M again going overboard right in the water climbs up on the floating head, from which while flakes of spermaceti are floating on the water and drifting astern, and on his slippery seat, passes a long curved wooden needle through the hole and then draws through a rope which he passes in board, where by means of it a chain is passed through the hole and the head lashed on the quarter, where it remains, the last to be hoisted in.  The Cap now comes in board & superintends generally.  (In margin:  describe blanket pieces) I must defer the remainder of this description to a future page – page 121 –

Monday March 8th 1859.

5 months out today.  Still cruising off Masafuera, both this & Juan Fernandez are in sight.  Calm, dead & unbroken for last two days.  Yesterday several of us were tempted by the smooth sea to go overboard for a swim.  No sharks were in sight, & though plenty of them had been visible a few days ago, yet despite of this, so calm & beautiful was the sea and air that half a dozen of us went over the bows and enjoyed a good swim.  But the last of us hadn’t been on deck 10 minutes when a large shark was descried swimming alongside.  We made an attempt to harpoon him, but failed, a warning to me not to venture overboard again in these lattitudes.  As it was I felt a little uncomfortable while in the water, as I thought that a monster might in an instant appear from under the ship and especially with bow line by which I was to get on deck with was small rope, the bows very high, and a very hard job to clamber up.  Last Thursday while in sight of M. Terra, and while all hands were busy sending aloft tackle preparatory to stowing down our oil, a ship in sight off our weather quarter.  Tripp sang out for several blows, and cried out that the ship had wore for them.  This news suspended operations of stowing down for the day, for we immediately wore & stood for the ship & supposed whales, but no more spouts were seen.  We however stood on and about 4 P.M. we were near enough to recognize the Old Virginia & the spruce trim looking skipper pacing up & down on the house with his large mastiff dog barking at us, while her Kanaka crew were looking at us from her bow & try works.   She hailed us, and soon her skipper, Cap Veaks [Peakes – Ed.] came aboard.  He good naturedly joked out Old Man about having so many casks of oil lying about deck, for some 17 casks were lashed to the rails on the quarter deck, and then the two skippers going below for drinks {mere suposition} our mate called out to us to man the boat, & 4 of us jumping into the old whale boat — all patches & dingy from age and use — we pulled aboard the Virginia steered by her fourth mate.  This old craft lay slowly rooling on the swell, her main yd aback,.  We found her decks open, unincumbered with anything but permanent fixtures:  a low rail, old dilapidated try works, & everything around evidencing her protracted cruse.  7 or 8 large sleepy looking & homely hog’s were leasurly grunting about the decks; squashes were hanging in rope yarn slings from under her little house; & a bin with a few onions on its bottom stood just before a low cabin skylight.  We were recognized by her crew and welcomed heartily, the Kanaka’s shaking hands cordially and asking us below.  A dirtier, more dingy & dilapidated forecastle I cant imagine.  Dark and low, it was rendered still more dismal by the blackness of the beams bunk boards chests, everything that could collect & retain the hues from lamp smoke & tobacco fumes — or the accumulated dirt from the careless habits of 20 black, swart fellows, & two Americans almost if not quite as bad.  Our own neat little forecastle was a paradise in comparison.  We were just eating supper of poirpose [sic] balls & soft tack & onions, when thar blows was sung out repeatedly from the mast head.  Repeated & long continued disappointment had made the crew rather indifferent to such {to us A. A. men} cheering crys, but at length we all turned out on deck, and soon the boats were lowered & put off.  The ship had taken no oil during her present cruise, & though out near 4 years had only 700 sp.  Her crew nearly all cruisers were anxious only to get ashore, when all hands contemplated leaving even her mate who had been skipper two voyages, & whom Cap Veaks had shipped at TalcahuanoIt was not surprising therefore that our mate should observe that no one of [them] had noted the direction the whale took, its spout &c, for according to our mate the boats were lowered without knowing where to pull.  Our mate with his one crew who came aboard with him took the Cap’s boat, and though we were obliged to wait some time for the boats sail, yet having the crack boat of the ship, we soon came up with the others who were sailing while we were pulling, and as they sailed along steering free we pulled dead to windward, our mate saying that no body knew where that whale would come up, but himself & that he knew precisely where he would breach or blow again.  This was in the style of our mate a great boaster though an undoubted whaleman, & as the whale didnt either blow or breach again in sight, I concluded that the mate didnt know the precise spot where that animal was to exhibit his hydraulic performances for the benefit of 7 boats & their crews, but that the exhibition was considerately deferred lest the Virginians should have the chagrin to see us towing their whale along side our ship, for the mate said if that whale came up in the “precise” spot, he was a dead whale, & by the laws of gamming the victor took possession tryed out & shared the proceeds; but our mate said he always took the lion’s share.  Our ship lowered 3 boats, but we were all obliged to return from our bootless & whaleless attempt.  The mate waited [till] the other boats had fairly started for their respective ships when he set the boat sails — mainsail & g. t. sl — and we ran down to the ship in beautiful style, the boat limber & easy & before the wind running with an indescribable grace & speed, while long after a fine sun set, the shades of night were closing around the summits of Masafuera about 3 miles distant, and tinging the sea with their somber hues.  On reaching the Virginia we hoisted up our boat & then assisted in shortening sail, the Virginians attempting to show us quick work, but met half way by the quick hands & stout arms of Frank & Charley, we double reefed & furled m. sl & then went below to finish our supper.  We stayed aboard till 10 1/2, the Doctor, a jolly old negro from the States, playing dominoes with Tripp & Charley, I gamming with the steward a Boston man and playing backgammon with an American from Nantucket, the dominoes made aboard ship and beautifully cut out of whales teeth.  All hands smoking, the Kanakas by themselves, when our ship now about half a mile distant showing two lights in her rigging, we returned, our oars flashing with every stroke in the phosphorescent seas, and our boat gliding over the long seas in the night gloom; the two ships looming up two dark & faint masses from which shone the bright signal lights that every now & then disappeared beneath a large wave as the ship rose & fell on the long rooling waves.  We pulled along side our own ship just as my watch turned out at 11 & Cap Veaks returning to his ship, we filled away, stowed the jib & furled the m. sl & then excepting the man at the wheel we all lay down along the forecastle deck, and only awaked at 3/4/ past 3 when Miller, his eyes hardly open came forward growling:  “wheres the watch – who are you” addressing us as we lay covered with coats & blankets.  “Why dont you call the watch – the man at the wheel is most dead – turn out then its most 12.”  We all laughed at Millers blunder and called out his watch.  The Virginians said their skipper did nothing but gamm, and were all resolved to leave.  Our ship the only one that has taken any oil on this ground this season, or since we arrived.

Wednesday March 10th 1859. 

To continue — the next day we renewed operations for stowing down.  We broke out the m. hold, the mates below & Old Man on deck, sent up water casks & casks of flour & bread, pumped out salt water from their casks, and when every thing was ready, we brot the casks of oil that were lashed on quarter deck and turned their contents by means of a hose into the empty casks in the hold.   For two days we were all very busy, all hands on deck at day light and working till dark, standing boat crews watch & the first day having plum duff & baked beans for dinner.  The decks presented a very lively scene, all hands at work, some coopering casks, some attending the hatchway, the tackles, the oil cask & hose, the Old Man a fine fellow to work under, stimulating us to exertion, everything going well, the hold echoing to the cheering crys of the mate, casks ascending & descending, the decks lumbered up with wood casks, shakes &c, and everything indicating a busy time.  On Saturday night we finished stowing the hold, and all of us pretty well fatigued, turned in, but on Sunday morning at day break all hands again were called, and we put between decks a few empty casks and then all hands went to work, washing off, a long, tedious job, scouring with our scrub broom the decks fore & aft, the decks being sanded, the rails, fifrails, waterways &c washed of with sand & canvas, and repeating & repeating our scrubbing till the decks were fairly white, we at length were ordered to breakfast about ‘8 oclock.  Thus we finished stowing off.  Santa Anna & Thompson on Saturday afternoon got into a severe fight on a wood pile on forecastle deck.  S. A. got T. by his beard and at length getting him down on the wood pile began hitting him with his fist, poor T. dodging his blows.  When the mate hearing the scuffle from the hold rushed on S. A., and catching up a stick struck him on his cheek as he collared him & flaying him about as he would an infant nearly shook his life out of him, as he cried out — Fighting are you – you black devil – I learn you to fight” — and catching up a rope end he thrashed the little fellow soundly, while S. A., bleeding from his moth jabbered out — “Thompson rumpe me” — “Me rumpe Thompson”  Thompson call me damn fool – no XXX (?)”  Here Thompson attempting some reply, the mate caught him by the throat with one hand & holding S. A. by the other, “Cant you find anything else to do than fight — Fighting! — Two of the most miserable objects aboard ship fighting!  Shame on ye — {addressed to us who were looking on}  Shame on ye to let these wretched objects fight” – You Abbe who pretend to be a man of principle, you stood by & never interfered, & you, you great lubber — addressing Shanghai, & you, Jack, and you Alonzo, who like to see the fun.  Thus with a word for all of us, the mate separated the combatants as the “Old Man” came on deck & told both the fellows that they should have a watch on deck &c.

Thursday March 11th 1859. 

Last Saturday while all hands were on deck stowing down, the “Old Woman” made poor Antoine a visit in the forecastle.  Antoine is now as the Steward says sinking quite fast.  He is watched now night & day.  Everything is done for him that can be done aboard ship.  Smoking is prohibited in the forecastle, but notwithstanding their countryman is apparently dying.  The Portugee grumble a great deal because they cant smoke, & there is smoking, for all hands who smoke light their pipes below, and one or two sometimes smoke for a few moments while below to the great distress of Antoine, for the smoke causes him to cough, and in his feeble state every cough almost tears him to pieces.  Poor fellow, it [is] hard enough for him in his to him lonely bunk dying slowly, the hum of active healthy life all around him, laughter, jokes, swearing, these waves of quick and eager life breaking on his ear, while the tide of his own life is almost ebbed out, away from friends & shore comforts & dear native land & the kind affectionate ministerings of mother or sister.  I do pity him from my heart, but an not expect or hope for his recovery.  Last Tuesday Mr Goland struck a sun fish, a homely fish something like the {picture} with very rough skin.  We took out his liver and exposed it in a tub to the sun, the product being an oil valuable for certain complaints – as rheumatiz (?)The fish would bite even after its heart was taken out, & even flap his fins.  A large shark was also along side accompanied by pilot fish, a beautiful fish with broad dark rings circling the body very active & graceful, beauty the companion of the fierce marauders of the sea.  Albicore were also alongside but they are to shy to be caught.  That night during our first watch the Old Man coming forward about 8 1/2 to see Antoine, roused up several of our watch, who simply stowed away in blankets & monkey jackets were lying some on fore hatch, some on the windlass, and ordering them as he roused them up, to carry their blankets below he told Mr G to set us to work furling & unfurling the light sails if we again indulged in deck sleeping; but no sooner was the Old Man below than sleeping places were resumed, G being too good natured to execute the “Old Mans” orders.  A dead calm all night, so very still that we could hear the Mother Carey’s chicken’s that now constantly attend the ship, chirping merrily, as they circled in the water or lighted in groups on the waveless yet swelling sea.  The stars left long dancing wakes in the sea, one or two bright — almost dazzling ones — gleaming in the water like inferior moons.  The birds reminded me of the “charm of earliest birds” at home in spring.  A large shark, half as long as one of the boats was lazyly swimming around the ship.  Every movement the monster made disturbing the water that flashed in elfish light.  We attempted to strike the savage.  It was too dark to distinctly distinguish his body as he swam close to the ship now on one side, now on the other, now invisible as he dove beneath our keel, but we could see every movement he made, for a wavy, undulating, serpentine flashing in the water denoted his presence as he swam under the shadow of the boats or the ships side.  We fancied we could hear whales blowing in the distance, and so solemn & unbroken the stillness that we could have heard a spout several miles.  A glorious sun rise, too magnificent in its soft breaking and blushing splendors for description fitly closed the beautiful scenes of the night.  The old Virginia has been in sight for the last week, in vain attempting in this calm weather to approach us, but yesterday she succeeded in coming within about 3 miles of us, when her skipper came aboard with his dog, and our mate returned in the boat with a pipe of old bread, in return for which we received some 6 bags of sweet potatoes, some [some] squashes & string beans, these latter for the cabin.  The two skippers enjoyed themselves by smoking & talking all day long and the gam continued till 9 1/2 at night, when our mate returned.  This old craft is fairly haunting us.  Antoine though so low, still will swear & curse hard enough if any noise is made, especially by R. E.

Friday March 12th 1859. 

Night before last Mrs Wilson gave me two papers of Nov date containing a partial report of the trial of the Junior Mutineers.  This had been received from the Virginia which had gammed some whaler just out from home.  I read this report to the forecastle.  It was amusing to listen to the different questions asked me in relation to this horrid affair.  It excites a great attention in the Pacific fleet.  Men & officers all curious, & some of them expressing most ludicrous opinions about the event of the trial.  Our mate says the Mutineers will be cleared at Boston, and our 3rd Mate says the same, that lawyers, judges & jury will all be bought; or so influenced that the criminals will get off.  This is of course absurd, but I find the crudest ideas about such matters prevailed where one would expect better & more judicious opinions.  We are now heading for some port — we are certainly leaving Masafuera ground, but for what port I can not certainly ascertain, though from what I hear I think it must be M——a.  All are anxious to get liberty.  The “Old Man” has been unwilling to go into Talcahuano fearing a portion of his crew will desert, a fear — as I know too well founded.  I know of several who intend to run away the first port we make, not from any particular dissatisfaction with the ship or officers, but — excepting the Portugee — because they are restless & imagine they can do better while making certain fixed wages and not depending on the luck of whaling, a precarious & oftentimes worthless source of pay, as witness the Virginia’s crew, who have absolutely earned not a cent during her entire last cruse, as no oil has been taken.  Where we got our whales none of us forward know.  That it was in cold & rough weather is certain, & probably it was to windard of Masafuera.  It was too rough for whaling, and the officers complained that in such roughness & thick weather it was hazardous to lower for whales.  But we now are making all sail for some port, the old Virginia still in sight, and bound with us to the same port.  We make but little progress however.  It has been calm for more than a week, & now with the whale lashed, the courses clewed up, the jibs hauled down & the topsails clewed down, we lay floating & rooling from side to side & veering about to every point of the compass.  At present all hands while on duty are middle stitching the old m. t. sail. The head being lashed to the quarter, the mate & 2nd mate recommence on the blanket piece that had been started, and cutting one each side of the gangway, they separate by means of their spades a strip of blubber some 5 feet wide, cutting obliquely towards the flukes, and as we heave away at the windlass, the blanket piece is gradually stripped from the carcass, rooling over the whale as it is stripped & cut off, & slowly rising higher & higher, and becoming longer & longer till a piece some 30 feet long hangs from the tackles, halfway up to the m. top, when we avast heaving, and a hole being cut half way below the first hook, the large strap belonging to the second tackle block is shoved through & secured by a togle, and the second tackle being hove taught the upper piece is cut off, when it swings on board & is gradually lowered on deck.  The officers now cut away again, we recommence heaving, and this process is repeated till the flukes are reached.  These are now cut from the body & separately hoisted on board.  The blubber is piled up in the waist on the weather side and a place cleared for the reception of the head, but “lippering” the deck with pieces of white horse, and if the head be of medium size it is hoisted in whole & lashed securely to the rail, just between the m. fifrail & the m. rigging.  During the cutting in which occupies about a day, the ship presents a novel sight.  The waist is piled with blanket pieces from which raw oil is slowly oozing & filling the scuppers previously stopped up.  Long pieces of blubber are slowly rising from the side, the cutting tackles creaking from the immense strain, the blanket pieces dripping with water & blood, and swaying fore & aft as the ship rools on the heavy seas, the officers over the side cutting away, the body of the whale rising & falling & occasionally jerking violently on the cutting in tackles, the carcass already stripped, bloody, raw, misshapen, & surrounded by sharks, while flocks of birds fly just astern, wheeling & uttering their clang as they pick up or snatch for the fragments that float away.  The men at the windlass heave wearily, for it is hard work.  The Cap speaks to them & for a moment they work briskly, but soon relapse into their slow, jogging, heave, till Jack strikes up a song, when all hands joining, the strokes become steadier & more frequent, for a song always rouses the men, makes them cheerful & quick.  It is very animating to hear the men as they now sing & heave, the windlass jerking from the heavy strokes from the bars, the falls creaking, the loud chorus from twenty voices rising suddenly & swelling into a musical shout and so suddenly ceasing, and succeeded by the sole voice of Jack as his clear tones rise above the noise of the heaving & the shouts of the officers, and cheerily sing the adventures of the ”Female cabin boy” or “Katy my Darling” or some other equally chaste & poetical shantie.  As we were heaving in the flukes from the last whale, Tripp came to the windlass with the other boatsteerers, and all joining with a will, we ran the flukes up till the blocks were two blocks, heaving quick as firemen (?) at their brakes, & all shouting out “There she comes — Heave away boys for your grog — Brake her down.” &c till the din was deafening.  The “Old Man” was pleased at this for he called out to the steward to get out our rum, & as we were hoisting in the head, Mr G came forward & sung out “Heave away boys, the steward has gone for your grog.”  A sudden shout was our only answer, and we heaved away with such a will & noise that the old woman startled by the shouts, gaped at us in evident alarm, & the head rising over the gangway, its weight fairly heeling the ship a lee, at length inclining inboard, slipped over from the side & thrashed heavily athwart ships, as the officers directing its fall shouted out “Lower – Lower” & the immense animal was wholly cut in, for the last piece, the head, was now securely resting on deck. [in margin:  appearance of blubber &c] 

Sunday March 14th 1859. 

A complete calm, topsails clewed down & courses clewed up, sea perfectly unruffled, but with a very heavy long swell from westward, a mystery to me, as it has been calm for near two weeks.  We are headed for Mocha & carry all sail night & day, but from the light winds make but little way.  We have taken our final leave of the Masafuera ground.  Mr Goland told me that we were to the leeward & westward of Masafuera, outside of the fleet, when we took our whales.  Friday Tripp struck a large shark while we were at dinner, and even after his head was cut off — hanging down by a portion of his neck — the monster still thrashed about in the water, while two beautiful pilot fish with their green & black streaks swam around him, apparently wondering to see their patron so confined, and still hovering round him — very like affectionate & regretful children.  The mate said “he could’nt strike a shark for sport, that they would’nt attack him because he was a man, but because they were hungry” a piece of moralizing to me almost absurd, for I hold it good to destroy monsters whether of the sea or land.  After all the shark is a handsome & graceful fish, & divested of his horrors, would be a favourite, with his long symmetrical body, well shaped head & large eye, as it is he is the scourge of the sea.  Last night in the dead stillness we could distinctly hear some large fish blowing quite near the ship like the puffs of an engine, only less frequent.  They were sp. whales or grampuses probably ======Cutting in continued.  I have described the whale as presenting a grayish, mottled, appearance in the water.  As the blubber comes in board in blanket pieces the color of the skin changes to black, while the blubber itself is of a white hue.  Imagine a strip of very coarse irish moss “blanc magne” 20 feet long, 8 or 12 thick, 5 or 6 feet wide, covered with a very black skin; on one side — and on the other — large strips & fragments of bloody flesh adhering, in consistence very compact & tough, oily to the touch, & exceedingly slippery to the feet, slimy in appearance and changing — when exposed to the air — from a white to a dirty gray color, and you have a good idea of a blanket piece as it lays on the deck.  The blubber proper extends from the head to the flukes, the fins coming inboard with the blanket piece that lays next them.  The head is divided into two parts by a stringy tough membrane of a white color called the separation.  One portion — the upper half of the head — is called the case, the lower portion to the upper jaw is called the junk.  The case is valuable mostly for its spermaceti or “head oil” which is obtained by opening the case after it is separated form the junk by spades, and bailing out the oil which is found underneath the blubber, protected by a black sine and underneath the skin an exceedingly tough and quite thick carteliginous membrane.  After a long slit is made through this protection a boat steerer with a bailer bails out a liquid oil and tears off from the sides of the case large pieces of white & sweet smelling spongy matter which when compressed by hand yields readily & turns into oil.  This oil & mater is placed in a clean cask, where the matter is torn up and squeezed up by hand preparatory to boiling.  The oil congeals to the sides of the cask in pure white, flaky, snow like accretions resembling a hard white froth.  The blubber surrounding the case contains little if any oil & but little of it is saved; but after the head oil is bailed out clean, the case now shrunk & flat is cut in pieces & shoved overboard, a broad flat piece is saved to cut “horse” pieces on, as a kind of cutting block, to keep the spades from cutting the deck.  The rest is worthless.  But the junk is all valuable.  Its outside blubber is tough like the rest, but the body of it is exceedingly soft & saturated with oil, divided into layers by a tough but thin “separation.”  As the spade handled carefully cuts through the junk the oil oozes out in great drops & notwithstanding the utmost care in cutting, a great deal of oil escapes to the deck, whence it is scooped up from the scuppers.  This blubber is like a fleshy sponge completely saturated, drenched with oil, which tinges it dark, as water does a thoroughly filled sponge.  Both it & the case matter have a sweet, somewhat fragrant odor, and as we squeeze out the case matter in the cask —  the junk being cut into horse pieces is passed through the “machine” — we seem to be handling an oppressively sweet & fragrant substance.  This is very pleasant work.  Both the case & junk are boiled out last.  The head contains no flesh, no muscles, has no bone, & is connected with the body merely by the blubber.  The end of the back bone fits into a kind of socket or cup of hard cartilege, but does not extend into the head, a curious formation, an immense head without a bone or muscle.  After the blubber was all in board & piled up in the waist on the port side, the Old Man called all hands aft to splice the main brace again, a command cheerfully and instantly obeyed.   We then went to supper, after which our watch turned in for 6 hours, while the S. watch went on deck, where by lantern light & occasionally moon light, they commenced to cut up the “blanket pieces” into horse pieces.  Hauling out a blanket piece by long gaffs, with a spade handled as one would a spade to cut turf, the piece is divided into smaller strips, about two feet long & 8 inches wide.  These as they are cut are piled up between the tryworks or scrap cooler and the rail in readiness for the cutting machine.  This cutting into horse pieces is a dirty job.  Stepping constantly on or among the pieces, you are soon drenched with oil to your knees, and you are fortunate if you dont slip a few times and measure your length on the oily deck or blubber.  This night work presents a curious scene of apparent butchery.  Some are hauling out the pieces, the officers & boat steerers cutting with their spades, the carpenter often by lantern light sharpening spades, while the others armed with long caning (?) knives are cutting from the blubber the flesh & twitter, or separation between the blubber & flesh.  The pure flesh is thrown overboard, but the twitter and what is called the “fat ham” are saved to be boiled out separately.  This continues all night, till day break, our watch turning out at 12 1/2 & the other watch going below till day break, when all hands are called for the day.  While cutting in the first whale our watch had the first six hours on deck.  We alternate thus for every whale.

Monday – Tuesday March 16th 1859. 

We are now a little to windward of the Juan Islands, heading for Mocha.  The wind has now freshened a little & hauled to the northard, but still it is not strong enough to steady the ship, but on the long & to me still unaccountable  swell, the ship rools so that chests fetch away, crockery in cabin clashes, while going aloft is rendered difficult, and mastheads are at a discount.  With my line yesterday we caught 6 large albicore weighing some 15 pounds apiece.  Very exciting sport this, out on the martingale, bobbing the hook up and down so as to splash in the water in simulation of a flying fish, the large fish darting savagely at the bit of mother of pearl lashed to the hook and flashing in the clear water, and breaching wholly out of the water in their eagerness, their motion quick as a flash, hauling them up, great fellows quivering so stoutly as to thrash the deck like a hammer, and hauling them out as quick as you can throw your line to the water, till as Jack says, the rest “Daveyand play about, but wont bite.  All this is sport, and hard work, too, my small line cutting the hand as the fish must instantly be hauled up, as their weight soon tears the hook from their jaws.  Their body somewhat resembles a cod, but much broader & thicker, two long pectoral fins near the head, with a groove or furrow along the side into which the fin fits; dorsal fin extending along the back and some minute ribs 7 or 8 in number close to the flukes both above & below & extending to the flukes; the flesh quite dry, the poke like shore tripe, the liver good, the head very fat and excellent for chowder.  The “Old Man” himself helped clean the fish & we salted down a scrap tub full of the flesh.  They are rather rich but still relish finely.  I now go barefoot, but put on shoes to go aloft.  Very little dooing now, picking oakum being the standard employment while off duty at wheel or mast head. 

Thursday — March 18th 1859.  

Wind for two days has blown strong, and we have made a good run before the wind, the ship rooling badly, almost impossible for me to write.  Cap while sitting on coopers horse rode across decks to leeward as the old bark heeling over sent the horse sliding with the “Old Man” into the scuppers.  All hands laughed, but then as all hands often indulge in this innocent amusement, it did’nt particularly provoke the Old Man.  Yesterday reduced sail by double reefing f. t. sl & furling f. t. g. sl.  Last night very bad watches — a steady cold rain and the wind freshening till about 3 1/2 when it blew a gale, the hardest blow we have had in the Pacific.  We furled m. l. g. sl, but did not reef the m t. sl, our skipper being anxious to make Mocha.  Wind hauled ahead, but now the wind has gone down, almost calm.  Mate sent us scrubbing off waist & quarter deck with sand, the fresh water, or rain water assisting to get out the “gurry” which notwithstanding our nightly washings off still stains the sheathing.  “Old Man” wants me to go into S. watch, to have time to teach Johnny, but I dislike to leave my own watch.  However I may change for next cruse when I shall study navigation with the “Old Man.”

Sunday 21st 1859. 

Last Wednesday the wind increased so that we reduced sail by furling f. t. gsl & double reefing f. l. sl.  The sea was very rugged, and the ship rooled heavily so that everything loose about deck would fetch away.  On Friday the wind, which freshened during the day, began to blow hard and towards night gave every indication of a norther.  It was blowing a young gale at 5 P. M. when we were under double reefs & foresail.  But the weather, looking thick to windward & the wind increasing we reduced sail to close reefed m. t.sl & stysl & set the m. spencer.  We lashed some new casks we had been coopering, and made ready for a bad night.  It was our first watch out, the wheel lashed, but attended by a man, the ship rooling on the increasing sea, the wind — cold & becoming furious — all indicated a severe gale.  The wind continued to blow harder & more furiously till about midnight when it blew tremendously, howling & roaring in a terrible way.  The waves getting higher each moment at length began to break in board till at last every few minutes an immense sea would break over the ship & sweep to leeward, dashing water above the main yard and wet & dash with spray everything exposed.  The wind seemed to increase every moment; we were near land & hadn’t enough sea room to feel very safe.  The ship rooled more than ever.  It was impossible to sleep, for it was impossible to keep quiet.  Towards 3 A.M. the gale was at its height, when a rain set in which slightly mitigated the force of the wind, but the ship rooled so that we were afraid she would rool her spars out of her.  Giving one tremendous lurch, she rooled the S. boat entirely under, and swept from it whatever wasn’t lashed.  Very strange it did’nt stove the boat.  We hoisted up the boat & about 5 1/2 wore ship, while heading N.E. to W.  We were startled when morning broke to find our selves in green water, but no land was visible.  We hoisted up the other boats after we wore ship, as on one rool we very nearly lost two of them.  About 9 A.M. the winds lulling a little the S. watch set the f. t. sl & close reefed it, carrying aloft loose reef points & reeving them aloft before they close reefed.  We had previously unbent the close reef points, I imagine because the “Old Man” thought of going to leeward.  It rained steady all day, the wind holding its own.  Decidedly Cape Hornish — cold, wet, & standing under weather cloths.  I believe we are off St. Carlos, to which & not to Mocha we are bound.  But no one knows where we are bound, but reports of twenty different ports have been flying around the ship for the last two weeks.  But we shall probably know tomorrow, for the wind though still blowing furiously, slackened from its force last night about dusk, the rain ceased, & the weather brightened a little though still thick.  About 6 this A.M. wore ship & kept her before the wind, but the “Old Man” coming on deck ordered Miller to close haul the ship, when we headed N. & N E.  At 11 we rounded in the weather braces & put the ship before the wind, heading E & E. by N. under close reefs only.  I was sent to the wheel with John Dimion.   Still blowing hard & thick, yet a little clear.  Heading for land.  Tom got asleep while over the quarter, & slept 35 minutes on his dangerous seat.  I broke with Manuel.  I could’nt bear his temper & Portugee spirit.  I am glad to be relieved of him.  Gale still continues with a very high & long sea, though the waves are not so enormous as some we saw off Cape Horn, though the wind has blown much harder than at any previous time during the voyage. 

Thursday March 25 1859. 

The gale abated to almost a dead calm on Sunday night & the weather cleared up with a fine moon light.  Next morning under all sail we were surrounded by a very heavy fog, no land then being in sight.  Monday brot light & head winds.  The land now visible, but indistinct & distant.  We spent the day coopering new casks for water, a pleasant work, all hands getting to be good coopers, though the Cooper was occasionally a little testy.  We continued to stand in shore till the next day, fresh winds favoring us, & the next morning land was plain in sight from deck.  I looked in vain for any traces of the Cordilleras — or Andes — but saw nothing but the coast ascending in high grounds & the long outline of the shore fading away north & south.  We got & ranged our chains, sent aloft fish tackle, & got everything ready to get our anchors off the bows.  We stood in quite near shore, when suddenly about 10 A.M. the weather thickened, & a very dense mist came up that hid the land from our sight, so dense that one could not see two ships length’s ahead.  The weather became so threatening that reluctantly we sent down our fish tackle & gave up the idea of making an offing that day.  Indeed we expected a norther, & double reefed topsails, & Tom getting the ship aback we wore off from land.  All were disappointed, but there was no help for it.  The weather cleared up a little towards night.  All night we lay off & on, the land in sight, a dark & indistinct mass, looming up through the gloom, and we could distinctly hear the breakers as the long Pacific dashed its swollen waters on the submissive shore.  That night I lay down for a little while on my chest during my watch on deck & Shanghai, making the fore lift fast about my legs, the rest of the watch bowsed away till I brot up against the steps, taking in my passage hither an alarmingly sharp cut, & twirling around in a way that would have immortalized a circus tumbler.  Shang — the rogue — pretended ignorance, & when I went on deck, all hands were coolly singing “Bully in the Alley,”& as innocent as so many sucking pigs.  I  could’nt help laughing, though at first I was slightually mad.  I am now waiting a chance to make S fast.  Such tricks are common & all make common sport of each other.  The nex morning we again stood in with light & baffling winds, till about 2 P.M., when we came to the entrance of the harbor opposite a bold, bald bluff, when the wind wholly left us & we were becalmed.   A brig had been in sight for two days & as we neared the harbor she rapidly overhauled us under everything — stunsails & all.  She loomed up in the sun’s wake just astern, her lofty spars & sails appearing to rise still higher from the suns glare, & as she slightly heeled a lee her black hull & lofty spars finely contrasted with the brilliance in which she seemed to swim.  She came up with us just as we were becalmed, when we made her out — the “Challenger” from Valparaiso.  We now hove the lead & found 19 fathoms, which shoaled to 16, 15, 12.  The shore presented to us a fine spectacle.  We could distinctly see lofty trees & verdant foliage.  Kelp & drift wood were seen in every direction; ducks were flying in every direction; even shore flys came off & lit or flew about us.  The hills were wooded to their very base; the shore & the breakers could dash their spray on green grass & foliage.  Unlike the rocky, desolate & bleak looking coast of St Jago or Brava; or the high uninviting Juan, the land looked like home land, and as such I hailed it.  The calm continued while our ship & the brig now abreast each other without steerage way, lay on the gentle swells, heading in no particular direction, but drifting with the current or tide.  We could see down the harbor & admired its apparent beauty, but evening closing about us, & a light land breeze springing up, we stood out from land, followed by the brig.  Our skipper kept the brig in sight as long as he could, for being a coaster, she was well acquainted with the harbor & our ship wished to follow her in, but we lost sight of her about 10 P.M.  The night was beautiful — still, undisturbed save by the roar of the distant breakers.  About midnight Old Man came on deck and wore ship in shore, but altering his mind, soon wore again & stood out.  There was a heavy fall of dew, & the decks were wet as from a rain.  The night was serene, & it was not long before we discerned the brig heading with us, just distinguishable in the evening gloom.  A fine wind sprang up about 4 & continued till day break, when a dead calm succeeded.  The Old Man so often baffled resolved to tow the old bark in, & all hands were called to man the boats.  We were about 2 miles from the entrance to the harbor; a heavy swell from the southard & westward kept the ship rooling off & on.  The 4 boats strung out ahead, the 2 mate leading & 3rd mate in the rear, attempted to tow the ship, each boat towing the succeeding boat by its warp & the last boat fastened to the ships martingale by a long warp.  We pulled for near half an hour, but the sea was so rugged that we could not even keep the ships head in a line with the boats; & the tide setting out carried drifted ship & boats away from land spite of all our efforts.  We pulled away, all keeping stroke to Jacks shanties, till well tired, the Old Man called us aboard to breakfast.  But about 10 this morning a fine wind & fair sprang up & under all sail we moved again the land.

Tuesday April 12th 1859.  

I interrupt my narrative to describe my visit to Juan Fernandez.  I had no time to write while in port and therefore must transcribe from my notebook, but this I defer for the present.  We left Valdivia — or Coral — last Tuesday and after a cold unpleasant passage, meeting one norther, we made Juan last Sunday, and coming up with the island about dusk, we passed to leeward & lay too till morning, when we rounded the western bluff & with a light breeze stood in towards land under all sail.  The “Niger” of N. B. came in sight in the morning & was beating towards land.  About 10 A.M. {yesterday} we came within about 2 miles of shore when the Old Man lowered.  All kinds of reports were circulating aboard ship as to the crew the Old Man would take with him, so that at one time to my intense disappointment I thought I should not be allowed to go — the Old Man fearing more runaways — but when the boat was lowered I jumped into my place as stroke oarsman, and pulled ashore.  The “old woman” went with the Cap, for she is now quite a sailor.  I wish I could describe the very wild & picturesque appearance of this famous bay — the high land breaks off abruptly with the sea, so that bluffs, perfectly perpendicular, their shagged & lofty sides some of them 150 – 200 – 250 feet high, give an exceedingly bold & dangerous appearance to the coast.  But then the bays are delightful, formed as they are by the low land of the valleys.  We rowed along a towering bluff, & after some brisk work with the oars, we came up to the beach in a beautiful bay.  Rounding a kind of causeway built of heaps of beach pebbles, we ran the boat unto a little dock till she grounded, when the Old Man & woman got out & were received by the skipper of the “Niger,” who was ashore.   They proceeded up the beach towards the houses, while we shoved off to fish, & pulling along under a high bluff, we dropped our anchor alongside one of the “Nigers” boats & began to fish.  We gammed & fished together.  The officer of the nigers boat, a veritable Yankee — pleasant & full of questions but not at all rude — handing us a bucket of delicious peaches from shore, we fished close to the bluff for some time, catching large rock cod, lobsters, scup & several kinds of fish strange to me but all of them fine looking & fine tasting too as we afterwards found.  I could not help congratulating myself that I was fishing in the very spot where that rare hero of pure romance, Robinson Crusoe himself, first drew fish from these pleasant waters, himself the Isaac Walton of the isle.  Eels bit eagerly, and gave us a great deal of trouble.  Savage, long & heavy, they would run with the hook into a crevice of a rock & defy our efforts to dislodge them; & it was difficult to kill them & detach them from the hook.  They however gave us sport, all being afraid to handle them, as they showed teeth altogether to formidable to be trifled with, & the endeavors of the luckless fisherman who hauled one up to kill & unhook the slimy prey, kept us in merry humor.  We fished till we had caught about 100 fish, when we hauled up our anchor & hoisting our sail, made for the beach.  I now had a fine opportunity to observe the valley where lies the settlement.  In an amphitheatre formed by lofty, steep hills — or rather mountains — a narrow, thin, perpendicular peak in the back ground, clothed to the very top with heavy moss & short trees, lay the settlement.  There were not more than four or five houses, built of wicker work, plastered with clay & straw, with broad piazzas, & distant about 80 yards from the beach.  Back of the houses lays a fort built of pebbles & making some pretensions to regularity, but no way very formidable; & below the fort on an elevation lay the celebrated caves some six in number, running into the hill.  The ground was covered with flowers & verdure, & though late in the year, everything was green, save now & then some yellow grass on the exposed brow of [of] a lofty hill.  Cord wood was piled on the beach for the use of ships that visit the island.  Sleek ponies with round limbs & long tails were browzing quietly on a gentle slope; & four or five hounds greeted us as we walked towards the houses.  We were nearly smothered with laughter as we saw a young bull, tethered by a long raw hide rope, familiarly & tamely walking up behind Joe & butting him gently in the rear.  Joe jumped near a rod & roared louder than any possible attempt of the bull himself, more from surprise & sudden fright than from any pain whatever, for we afterward caressed the animal, who was very tame.   We walked along a kind of path scored by the logs that had been dragged to the beach, and came to the principal house, a low structure with a long piazza.  We didn’t stay to look about us, but were proceeding to the caves, when in the distance we saw the Old Man beckoning to us; & following his directions, we ascended a little hill & a little back found a house of better appearance than the others, owned by an English merchant captain who had been on the island above a year.  There we found the Cap & wife together with the skipper’s wife from the “Niger.”  The Old Man sent Joe to the boat with a bag of peaches, & told the rest of us to go back of the house in a grove of peach & fig trees & help ourselves.  This was very delightful work, & arming our selves with long poles, we roamed about under the trees knocking off the luscious fruit, the peaches being cling stones, very large, fair & sweet.  We ate till we were full & then filled our pockets & bosoms with the fruit, I taking off my jumper & making a bag of it.  We then roamed back to a tall hill which we ascended, where a fine — nay a magnificent — prospect presented itself.  Before us lay the shore, & calm Pacific, the two ships with their white sails laying off & on, & the only objects in the distance that broke the calm blue expanse of waters that rooled away in the gentlest of swells to the far horizon, and gazed upon by the sun that marched through a cloudless sky.  The bay, protected by the broad & rugged steep bastions of the bluffs, lay before us quiet & its waters unbroken save by the boats of the “niger” that were carrying wood.  The settlement lay embosomed in a romantic vale, while all around us — save where the ocean lay — precipitous peaks covered with verdure erected their lofty brows towards heaven.  Wild goats & kids sported on their sides.  A little to the left lay the fort & caves, and above feet (?) the house of the English Captain almost hid among the trees.  We admired this fine scene for a little, & then passing by the fort came to the hill beneath & into which ran the caves.  Sliding down a long log we came to the entrance of the caves.  The first two caves extend but a few feet into the hill.  The third, running back some 30 feet, is used as a calabose when a calabose is needed, & is defended at its entrance by a stout open frame work with a small door.  We entered this & made its sides reecho to our hallooing.  Leaving this we entered the fourth cave, which was above 80 or so feet long & about 15 wide & 20 high, the sides covered with names cut in the soft clay, the autographs of visitors, some of them very neat, & many of them hidden by ferns which covered the sides and roof & hung luxuriantly in every direction.  The cave was damp & the floor moist.  Light from the large entrance penetrated to every corner.  It was evident that the caves were cut & artificial.  It is said they were contrived by the pirates that once haunted the South American coast.   From this cave where I lef my name “rudely cut” in its turn to be covered with ferns & preserved by this verdant case with hundreds of its fellows, we entered by a narrow passage the fifth cave, which resembled the last, & finally entered the sixth whose opening was partly closed by the clay that had shelved from the bank above.  We shouted & sang till the hoarse echoes were deafening, & the cave was filled with our rough laughter.  Into a dark recess cut into the side of one of the caves I was persuaded to enter, but not without the precaution of a stick to feel my way, & with this I soon found a little well covered with loose boards.  The appearance of these caves is anything but cheerful, but around what spot, however cheerless, will not romance throw her warm colors & delightful hues.  To me the caves were as cheerful & comfortable as a lovers cottage, for they were invested with romance by the genius of De Foe, & it required but little fancy to paint afresh the vivid scenes of Robinson Crusoe.  The caves were cut like so many sand birds holes, in the soft but firm clay that seems to be the prevailing rock of the island.  The clay over the entrances was hardened & browned by the sun, but readily crumbles to the touch.  The interior was damp, the clayey sides moist but yet quite hard.  It required a knife to cut one’s name.  No seat or in fine any “furnishing & furniture” (?) was visible.  Nothing but bare walls, floors & roofs, clothed by the green curtaining ferns.  About two miles from these caves is a seventh, in a cove called Robinson Crusoe Bay, but it is smaller than these & similar in appearance.  At a little distance the caves look like the holes birds build in a clay bank.  On the whole they are very interesting, though aside from their associations, they are mere dreary holes dug in a clay hill.  Leaving these & scrambling down the loose earth that lays before them in a large & steep mound, we again visited the houses where we first went.  In their rear under a kind of portico or projecting roof we sat down & lighting our pipes rested ourselves.  Two or three women were at work, one of them decidedly pretty, but alas! without hoops, (?) sitting on the ground sewing.  3 little fellows hardly knee high to a grass hopper were frolicking about, handsome, bright eyed little fellows full of fun.  I was soon on the best of terms with them, & they caught me several times with lassoes made of rawhide, & which they threw with wonderful skill for children so young — the oldest not above 5 years old — catching me about the neck.  I frolicked with them & with some fine looking hounds, & at last a man coming down the hill on a jackass, I managed to persuade him to let me have a ride.  And mounting my charger, like some Quixote, I sallied forth for adventure.  I dont know that I sallied forth — indeed I am confident that I didnt — for that expresses rather too much of brisk movement & quick steps.  I jerked forth on my steed, for at first I could’nt prevail on my nag to budge an inch, & when assisted by a vigorous assault in the rear from the stout Chillalian, the donkey did move, he nearly ran me through with a long pole against which he persisted in carrying me.  I narrowly escaped being spitted, but that was nothing, for coming to a little stream of water that whimpered along back of the house, the cistern, the wash basin & pump for the house & pond for several big fat ducks, he paused — for reflection, no doubt — so suddenly that I again escaped fate only by superior horsemanship.  My saddle was a thick sheepskin, my bridle a raw hide, my stirrups of heavy carved wood, & my steed a long eared & somewhat patient jackass.  What wonder then that I provoked laughter from my ship mates, as with a short clay pipe puffing vigorously from my mouth, & thrashing vigorously with my hands, I continued to extract a gallop from my unwilling courser.  It was rare sport, & I enjoyed till Frank asked for a ride when I relinquished my seat.  We continued to smoke, eat peaches, & look about the house & grounds till the Cap came down from the house above & sent us up for ducks & chickens & fruit which we carried down to the boat.  Seal skins of fine and glossy fur were hanging from the roof to dry.  Large quinces were spread out on a stand to ripen, & calf skins & goat skins were strewed about for seats.  A large clay oven big enough for a glass foundry, in an outhouse, furnished means for cooking, & we saw a fire preparing a mess of kids flesh for the family — very a la Robinson Crusoe.  The Old Man being now ready we went down to the boat & putting our poultry & fruit aboard, shoved off & pulled for the ship that lay with her main yard aback about two miles in the offing.  I gazed with regret on the peaks & pleasant valleys of this renowned island, for I should have liked to explore more; but I was happy that I had visited & roamed about the hills & caves of Juan Fernandez.  There are 13 residents of the island, 5 men, 4 women & 4 children, all doing as they please, though the english Cap rather takes the lead & control of matters.  Corn, cabbages, melons, figs, peaches, quinces & grapes are easily raised; & it is a favorite rendezvous for whalers from the excellence of its fruit & for wood & water, both of which are easily procured; while from its romantic associations — as well as from its lying in their route — merchant vessels often touch here for a visit or for fresh provisions.  From the sea the island appears exceedingly wild, with its sharp precipitous mountains & its bold bluffs; but its valleys & [sic] pleasant, while its climate is delightful.  I could desire no better place to enjoy a month or two.  The island in a geological view appears to be principally clay & trap; the hills are clay, with strata of hard rock, & the clay presents the appearance of rock wherever it is exposed to the sun & air, but readily crumbles with a slight blow.  In form the island is an irregular square, running out in its southwestern point in low land, & forming a second small island a short distance from the main island.  There was once several hundred houses on the island, most of which were destroyed by Admiral Cockburn [sic] when on his roving commission.  It is now owned by the chilian government, & a packet from Valparaiso occasionally visits the island.  To me the island is interesting to the last degree & have not spent a pleasanter day than that I spent on Robinson Crusoes Isle.  The two skippers & their wives spent a pleasant time exchanging news.   The “Niger” had seen whales 5 times in 10 days & had taken 100 bbls of Masafuera, which she had just left, from its stormy & rugged weather.  Our skipper, fired with the news, has determined to cruise there awhile & we are now bound again to our old ground.  So there is an end of Paita for the present, to which we were bound.  The Niger out 31 months with 1350 sperm.  Our skipper made Juan for fruit & men, but two runaways who were at the island when we last visited it, were now gone.  So we are to cruise shorthanded, having left 4 men at Coral:  Antoine sick, & cook & carpenter & Raw Eggs having ran away.  I picked some ferns from the caves at the isle & some flowers & these with some stones are the mementoes of my Juan Fernandez visit.­­­­­­======== 

Thursday April 14th 1859. 

Masafuera is now just ahead, looming up amidst clouds & mists, but near enough to be distinctly visible.  It was in sight yesterday, but we lost it before night.  I raised it again about 10 1/2 last night.  Our passage hither has been unpleasant, raining all last night, now blowing hard, & rugged seas.  Last Tuesday evening while at supper a very large bark met us under all sail, probably from the horn.  She had lost her jib boom & with nothing but a staysail looked a good deal like a steamer.  She had probably seen rough weather off the Horn.  Last night after we had reduced sail & made everything snug for the night, all hands came below to get out of the rain.  It was our watch below, & the starboard watch came down as there was nothing to do on deck.  Miller, who was aft sung out for the watch to empty the rain water buckets that hung from the boats on the house.  There was’nt a pint of water in either bucket, but Miller wanted to get his watch on deck.  The watch turned out and went aft, Joe leading, when Miller sung out to them “Dont one of you leave this deck till you are relieved.  Do you hear me?”  Joe answered “Yes Sir, I hear,” when Miller roaring out “oh you hear do you” jumped at Joe and struck him in the face, Joe putting up his arms to protect himself, when Miller, swearing furiously, struck him repeatedly till Joe — who is a great stout fellow — defended himself & struck Miller in return.  Miller now swearing he would kill Joe, jumped for a belaying pin and jerking at several at last wrenched one from the rail & running at Joe struck him across the eye & was following this up by another & another, Joe protecting himself as well as he was able; when the “Old Man” rushed up from the cabin, & catching hold of each, cried out to Miller — who tried to get at Joe — “I’l take care of that man Mr Miller;”  “Go forward Joe.”  Joe came forward with more rage than I can describe.  Miller chafed & raged, & Joe stalked too & fro on the forecastle deck incapable of speech.  I can not imagine what provocation Joe gave; it was Millers malignant temper — always xxx against the Portugee — that urged him to strike Joe, who is one of the best men aboard ship:  peaceful, quiet, & able seaman.   Miller spent about 3 months on a portugee island sick, & says he would have died if he had’nt had money, for the natives would’nt lift a hand to help him; & from this he hates the whole Portugee nation.  I am sorry that this has taken place.  Joe’s brow & eye are swollen & bloody from the blows of the pinsWhen our watch was called at 3 this A.M., Miller came to the forecastle & sung out for the watch.  We had all turned out on deck but two who were putting on their oil skins, & who immediately answered & came on deck.  Miller now hoarsely asked “who’s lookout it was,” & was busying himself about this when Mr Goland came forward & told Miller that he could take care of his own watch.  Miller fired up at this & almost instantly there was every prospect of a fight between the two officers.  Miller said it was his business to see that his watch was relieved, & Goland saying that he had no business to interfere with him or his watch.  Miller then dared Goland to fight.  Goland told Miller that he wouldnt be ridden over by any man, that he didn’t fear anyone, that Miller had acted meanly towards him in several little things, that he was a lone chick in the world, but that he could take care of himself, &c, to which Miller replyed with oath on oath that if Goland had anything against him he could take it out of him then & saying “By G-d I want everyone from the Cap to cabin boy to understand that I’m the head of my watch & that its my business to look out for them. “ Goland replyed & the altercation continued, till by degrees the two men became pacified & talking less loud, at length appeared to be explaining & becoming reconciled.  It was highly disgraceful, but I’m inclined to think Mr Goland right.  Goland was very much touched by Millers language & hurt that any one should imply that he could’nt take care of his watch.  I think Mr Goland almost too tender hearted for a sailor.  He is clearly incapable of Millers crassness & brutality.  To my mind such scenes are highly injurious to the morals of the crew, for such examples dont teach moderation, kindness, charity — but the very reverse. 

Saturday April 16th 1859. 

On Friday a sail was made out to windward bearing down on us evidently purposing to speak us.  We continued close hauled till the stranger — under double reefs & foresail — came dashing down before a stiff breeze and made it certain that she wished to speak us.  We hauled our mainyard aback & waited for her.  I was at the mast head & had a fine view of the barke as she surged on towards us, passing close astern & hailing us & inviting our “Old Man” to come aboard & bring his wife with him.  She proved the barke Aurora of Westport, Cap Marshall, out 29 months, 900 sp.  She was clipper built & trim as a dee, (?) her iron work, anchor flukes, martingale chains &c painted red, everything neat — she looked a fancy craft.  Our Cap lowered a waist boat & went aboard with Mrs Wilson.  Cap Marshall also had his wife with him & a little daughter.  The boat pulled away for the aurora, which now wore ship to bring the gangway to leeward, when the “old woman” was hoisted in board & the boat soon returned bringing the 1st & 2nd mate of the Aurora, both remarkably fine looking men, the boat manned by the Aurora’s crew, our own crew remaining aboard for a gamm.  The usual incidents of [of] a gamm followed.  We hoisted the boat & stood along with the Aurora just abreast to leeward, we being under whole topsails, soon left the Aurora astern, she being under double reefs, & by dusk she was out of sight.  About 8 we wore ship & stood for her, and she came up with us about 10 1/2.  It was a fine moon light night & the two ships at length alongside rose & fell together while boats passed between them on the heavy swells.  Our boat returned at 11, & our boys came below full of admiration of the Aurora, her forecastle, her skipper, & the reception the[y] met with.  They were entertained with a Kanaka dance, singing &c, & brot back a large pile of books.  Yesterday the Aurora was in sight but we lost her in the afternoon.  Now we cruise, keeping Masafuera in sight all the while.  We were within 2 miles of the island yesterday.  It is very lofty & massive, higher than Juan, it can be seen 80 miles, but it is not broken up into peaks & romantic hills like Juan.  It is more regular & less interesting.  The western end is terraced finely, like this {picture}.  It is uninhabited save by goats.  The weather has been tolerable for the last two days, though it rained a little last night.  It is however rough & somewhat cold.  We foremast hands sleep on deck covered with blankets in our night watches, all pigging together spoon fashion, leaving no one of us awake except the lookout & man at wheel.  Manuel & Tripp were playing cards on main hatch last night, the moon very brilliant & full.  Mr Goland hauled Shanghai off his chest the other night, S. being fast asleep, & S. frightened jumped on deck & ran half way aft before he knew what he was about.  All of our watch have been in the habit of going below for an hour or two during our night watches, relieving each other, & Mr Goland has not taken much notice of it; but his recent quarrel with Miller has made him more strict, and he took this occasion to tell us not to go below anymore to sleep, using very strong language to express this, but telling us he would’nt interfere with our sleeping on deck as much as we pleased.  Have seen some fin back spouts, but no sp. whales.  I spent first watch last night in washing — in very strong water. 

Sunday April 24th 1859. 

Now constantly crusing, constantly in sight of Masafuera, to S. W. of the island.  Last Sunday evening I commenced to study navigation with the Old Man, going below with him into the after cabin, where together we worked out the ships time.  Last Monday before breakfast whales were raised at the mast head, and about 5 3 boats lowered & pulled after a small school of bulls.  The whales apparently gallied by the ship were wild & after leading the boats & almost every direction at last went dead to windward, crossing our forefoot as the ship stood on after the boats.  The boats pulled hard, but it was evidently a bad job, as the wind was fresh, the sea rugged, & the whales going 10 knots an hour.  But unexpectedly two large bulls spouted astern of the boats, & appeared dashing through the water to windward & towards the boats.  The mate cried out to his crew as he set sail “only pull boys, & we’ll be the first boat along side, only pull, only pull, & that whale’s ours,” & almost imploring his crew to pull, the mate steered his boat onto the whales that were heading dead for him, the 2nd mate following just astern.  The mates boat shot in between the two bulls as they were blowing away, & Tripp sang out to the mate “which one shall I strike”  “The one to windward” replyed the mate, when Tripp planted his iron in the windward bulls hump just as the whales were settling on discovering the boats.  The 2nd mate now came up and sailed right on the whale without easing off his sheet, a very reckless act, & made fast.  The whale dashed off for some distance when he slacked up, & the mate pulling along side till his boat fairly rested on the whale, plunged in his lance & cried – “stern all,” but immediately added “hold on a little,” & grasping his lance he churned away on it & kept plunging it in with both hands till he thought he had touched life, when the sung out “stern all,” and the boat sterned away just as the 2nd & 3rd mates pulled up to lance.  The whale now began to spout blood, thick jets of gore pouring out about a foot high from his blow holes, so thick that it would hardly run, & coloring the sea for a great distance around.  The 2nd & 3rd mates now began to lance the whale which lay as it were stupid in the water that foamed around & over him, each calling out to the other & boasting where he should strike his next whale, socking their irons into the whales body & laughing & hurrahing in their excitement, while the mate lay off a little & cried out to the other mates not to mince the whale as there was a machine aboard ship, & telling his own crew that “he didn’t like to meddle with edge tools, & that they would see some of those boys leaving in a hurry pretty soon.”  After they had lanced till they had cut out most of the irons, the vast animal quivering & shaking as each lance struck him, but giving no other signs of life, the flukes began slowly to rise, when “stern all” was the cry & each boat sterned away in a hurry, just as the tremendious flukes descending edge ways cut the water like a knife close to the 3rd mates boat, filling it with water, & just missing the boat itself.  The whale now thrashed about for a while smiting the water with tremendious strokes and at last getting quiet he sunk under water, when the mate cried out that they would loose him if he died under water.  This struck a damp to all, but in a few moments the whales hump slowly emerged, and pulling up they found their prey dead.  The ship now came down & we got the whale along side; & clewing down our topsails & clewing up our courses we cut up & tried out the whale, finishing last Friday afternoon, and obtaining 112 bbls, a large yield from one whale.  The Aurora came down & crossed our stern while we were trying out, but we didn’t speak her.  Yesterday however we gammed her again, her “skipper & “old woman coming aboard, we hoisting the “old woman” in board in an arm chair covered with the ship flag.  I went abord with the mate, & had a pleasant time, witnessing a Kanakka dance in the ships forecastle, the wildest, strangest dance imaginable, two Kanakka’s dancing to the music of 3 drums, and jerking their arms & legs about till I feared a dislocation.  The scene is wholly indiscribable, the forecastle filled with men smoking & talking & this dance accompanied by the din of the drums.  We returned about 7 & had a merry time in our own forecastle with the gammers; any number of songs were sung & the forecastle was filled with smoke, laughter & song.  A mother carey’s chicken flew abord the other night.  I easily caught it, it was very tame and sat in my hand for a long time.  It resembled a small pluck dove. 

Thursday April 26th 1859. 

Still cruising off Massafuera, rugged weather, & last night rainy & cold.  Most of the forecastle hand’s suspect the Dutchman of carrying our secrets aft to the officers, & accordingly are careful of talking before him.  I dont know that the suspicion is just, but I should suspect the Dutchman sooner than any other man — he is so familiar with the officers & so fond of gamming with them.  Certainly a great many things travel aft.  The Dutchman imposes on his watch, for he hardly ever turns out at night before a half hour or so, & once or twice he has slept through an entire watch.  No inquiry is made for him, but let one of the rest of us go below for a little while & we are sure to be overhauled.  I am tired of whaling & of blubbering up to my eyes in oil, eating oil, drinking oil, sleeping in oil.  I am sick of it, & have made up my mind to leave at Paita & ship on a Peruvian brig bound to Callao or Valparaiso & thence ship on a merchantman for India or China.  I have seen all there is to whaling, & am curious to be among true sailors such as merchant sailors are. S has been resolved to leave for a long while back, & he agrees to go with me.  We go into Paita next September, whence I purpose to leave.  Meantime I am studying navigation & preparing for my next cruse.

Monday May 2nd 1859. 

Last Wednesday we took another whale that has turned out over 70 bbls of oil.  Whales were raised about 10 in the morning, and 3 boats lowered, and pulled away & sailed close hauled for the blows.  The mate had the good fortune to make fast to a whale, & the other boats coming up, together the three officers killed their prey.  All the boatsteerers made fast, but 3 irons drew, toglesThe whale died hard, but made but little fuss.  He spouted blood all over the mates boat & covered the mate with blood.  The wind died down & we could not get the ship down to the whale so the mate & 3rd mate towed the whale to us, a long & excessively tedious job, the men coming aboard well nigh exhausted, as they had to tow in a heavy sea about two miles.  We made the whale fast, & after splicing the main brace, all turned in just at dark, standing boats crew watches as usual, & breaking out water & bread during the night.  We cut in the next day & got all the head & body in board by 2 P.M., a quick job.  The cutting up & trying out went on as usual, the weather getting thick till last Saturday it began to blow & rain — nasty work — rainy, covered with oil.  I got disgusted with blubbering.  Yesterday — May day — we had just begun to put on the xxx (?) when the heaviest squall we have yet had came on us.  We furled f. sl & f. tsl in a driving rain & stowed everything below, lashed & spiked down over 170 bbls of oil, not having stowed the oil from our last whale, & made all snug for the night.  The squall lasted for an hour or two, then moderated.  We have had unusual success — 250 bbls in a little more than six months.  I’m sick of whaling, the blubbering being too dirty work to suit me.  I have now two suits of clothes covered with oil, & have had no time to wash them.  Massafuera still in sight.  All hands are out of tobacco, but the Old Man has promised us some as soon as he can break out.  He has already given several pounds from his own stock.  We have seen blows & breaches twice while trying out.  Plenty of whales around, but the weather is getting bad.  The Aurora is looked for by all — we want to show her our oil. 

Saturday May 7th 1859. 

After finishing our last whale our watch had one watch below — on Tuesday — but in afternoon all hands were called to stow down.  This dirty and tedious job was finished last Thursday night.  We stowed down over 150 bbls of oil, besides leaving some in some casks between decks.  The weather was bad most of this time, but by Wednesday night the wind increased till it blew a young gale.  We clewed up f. l. sl & f. sl, but during night while standing boats crews watches Tripp skin furled f. t. sl & f. sl with his four men, leaving the ship under a double reefed m. t. sl, m. sp & f. stysl.  The sea getting rugged the ship began to rool, till at last the two casks of water fetched away to leeward with a thundering noise, till they brot up against the lee rail, startling the whole ships company.  The next day the gale increased.  The stowing down continued, all the officers in the hold & the Old Man on deck.  The Old Man put the ship before the wind & the old barke trembled and rooled so that it was dangerous work handling the oil & water casks.  The ship gave 5 or 6 tremendious rools when all most all the casks between decks fetched away & rooled about from side to side, two of them tumbling into the hold & stavingMr Goland with several men was between decks, & when the casks fetched away he sung out for spikes & a hammer:  “Oh let the casks go to H–l” sung out the Old Man; “keep yourselves clear till she has got through rooling.”  It was marvelous that no one was injured, so many were below, but quick dodging saved all from broken bones.  The Old Man himself narrowly escaped a jam from a heavy water cask that rooled from side to side, carrying him with it & bringing up against some spars just in time to allow the “Old Man” to jump aside.  We finished our dangerous work about dark, when we swept off decks & turned in with boats crews watches; but were soon called up to close reef m. t. sl.  The gale was now terrible, blowing harder than any gale we have had, rooling up an immense sea from the westward.  The force of the wind bent our topgallant masts till we thought they would snap.  We had run to the southard till we were clear of Masafuera, so we didnt fear the land.  It was something to consider that we were in the same waters & perhaps experiencing the same kind of a storm that De Foe has so graphically described in his Crusoe.  Yesterday we hauled up and lashed the waist & bow boats, just in time, for the seas were so overgrown that we had nearly lost these boats from the rooling to leeward of the ship.  I declare those waves appeared to me to be almost animals.  They acted like furious living monsters, hungry for our ship.  Our officers were all glad on account of the gale for they thought with reason that it would disgust the “Old Man’ with Masafuera for this season and turn him to the northard — for the Archer grounds.  We are late in the season for this ground.  Winter is close at hand when terrible gales sweep these waters, of which we have had the furious prelude.  Sure enough, as soon as the gale abated, we wore ship & under a close reefed m. t. sl & f. sl scud away to the northard.  We lay too till this morning at 4 when we again kept off till day break when I discovered black & frowning Masafuera under our lee.  It is now pleasant, the seas gone down, the winds gentle, while we are hastening towards warm weather.  Both Ellis & Johnny — boatsteerers — have been laid up from bruises, Johnny getting badly jammed by a water cask that fetched away to leeward & jamming his left leg against the rail.  He was carried below almost fainting.  I dont want to see another such stow down.  I think it miraculous that no one has been severely or fatally injured.  I think that I shall leave without doubt at Paita & ship for Callao, & thence for the west — China or India.

Monday May 9th 1859. 

Not so certain about leaving Masafuera yet.  Old Man wants to get another whale before he leaves.  Yet I think we will cruse along to leeward till we get to St Felix.  Now under all sail, a stiff breeze about N.  I exchanged places with Curly yesterday & now belong to the bow boat.  Curly takes my oar in the “potato” boat.  The Old Man hasnt lowered this side of land for whales, & I have been ship keeper while our four whales have been taken.  Nothing could be more vexatious than to stay aboard while the boats were out.  The Old Man aloft on the look out would keep us hard at work tacking or wearing ship & trimming sails; or getting up fluke chains &c while the fellows in the boats were having their sport taking whales.  I am sick of this, & Curly who got thoroughly frightened when he was knocked overboard by the whale line, & who since then has been too frightened to be of much service when fast to a whale — staring at the whale, incapable of steering or obeying any order — Curly being willing to exchange, I have now left the old starboard boat & joined the bow boat that has thus far had fine successes.  We have now stowed down over 250 bbls, but we shall report only 250 bbls.  I dont know what I shall do about writing at length our visit to Coral or Valdivia — I think I must depend on notes taken at the time.

Tuesday May 10th 1859. 

We have actually left Masafuera & are now heading with a leading wind to leeward, bound for St Felix.  Fine & pleasant weather, smooth sea, a little cloudy.  The Portugee have been making a banjo out of pine wood, twisting manilla yarn for strings.  They are very expert at such work & have turned out quite a musical instrument which they are continually thumbing.  They are passionately fond of such music & keep time with their feet.  All hands by watches are now washing of the paint work of the ship:  waterways, plankshire [sic], rails &c.  It will take us two days to finish the job.  The mate says we will want to look tidy, as we are going among the whaling fleet.  Poor Thompson has taken the runaway Doctor’s place, but the fellow is fit for hardly anything, much less for a cook.  Yesterday he gave in with one of his eternal headaches.  Happy Jack took his place & yesterday the steward asked the mate if he couldnt spare him another man.  The mate replyed that he didnt know what place he could put Thompson in, unless he put him under the bow sprit for a figure head.  Thompson cryed at the prospect of leaving the galley, & turned to again this morning.  I think him a half idiot.  Truly as the mate says “God gives us grub, but the devil sends us cooks.”  Here they put the worst man they could pick out of the whole ships company to prepare our food.  I have now 3 or 4 scholars, & teach in the forecastle reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, &c.

Wednesday May 11th 1859. 

Still heading under all sail with a leading wind for St Felix.  Cap came down into forecastle while we were at breakfast and told us when we got through scrubbing off the paint work on deck, to haul out all our chests & scrub off the forecastle — under bunks, stanchions, beams, everywhere.  The forecastle needs this, as it is now decidedly dirty from the accumulations of seven months.  The floor is scraped off every day, but behind the bunks the filth is inches deep.  Adam slept in over two hours during our morning watch till Mr Goland went down & roused him up.  Nothing more was said to him, but Happy Jack who was asleep in the deck pot on deck got a damning for not turning out to brace round the yards.  All of us who are not on the look out or at the wheel sleep on deck covered with coats, pigging together heads & points, anywhere under the lee of bulwarks or windlass or try works; and when roused up to brace the yards or set sail the fellows will go staggering around, half awake.  This too in cold weather, the nights being cold & chillyOur skipper & mate dont seem to get along together very well.  Whether the Cap is jealous of the mate or suspicious of his seamanship or whaling skill, they dont appear to be fond of each other, but will frequently walk the deck side by side, the Cap to windward & mate to leeward without speaking a word.

Thursday May 12th 1859. 

Beautiful day, almost calm, sunny & warm.  Been washing off the outside of the ship, on stages, rather pleasant but wet work.  Beautiful night last night – quarter moon — sea calm, dead calm; clewed up everything.  Boatsteerers playing cards on try works, foremast hands — all together — asleep on forecastle.  Tripp told me the story of his past life previous to his coming to sea.  According to his account he had been a miserable fellow, or rather a wild, reckless, profligate chap.  He now certainly is the reverse — very faithful & attentive to his duties.  Still heading for leeward. 

Friday May 13th 1859. 

Light winds, dead calm last night, clewed down topsails & clewed up courses.  Very brilliant moonlight, beautiful night, heavy dews.  I washed by moonlight two suits of oily clothes from the two last whales, a dirty job, washing in remarkably strong water.  My large keg of soap is exhausted — not by me, for I have used but little, but by the thieves of the forecastle, who are either numerous or very dexterous.  It disappeared day by day, till I had to make haste to wash in order to have any soap to wash with.  The Portugee got no soap from the Old Man, but they always have plenty to wash with.  And they are undoubtedly the thieves.  Dutchman got asleep in the deck pot last night & Mr Goland lashed down the cover, then sung out to hoist m. t. sl.  We rattled the rigging & sung out till the Dutchman was awake, when Mr Goland sung out for him to turn out & poked him with a stick, making all kinds of fun of him, all of us standing by and joking the Dutchman about his craft, dubbing him Captain of deck pot &c., till at last Mr Goland unlashed the cover, and the Dutchman was discovered curled up like a snake on a pile of wood & turnips.  Mr Goland is fond of such tricks, a bad practice, I think for an officer to play with his men.  During our last trying out — there being nothing particular for Tom to do one night — he got asleep on the windlass bit when the mate, seeing him, called out to him; but this not waking “Mike,” the mate dipped a scrap in the hot oil & dripped it on “Mike’s” legs;  but “Mike” still sleeping Mr Goland heated a poker in the fire & burnt Mike about the legs, & then attempted to hoist him by the fore lift.  Mike by this time pretty well awake, got up, growling amid the shouts of all hands.  I was indignant at the using a hot poker to awake any man.  18 hours per day of hard work will make any man sleepy.  The mate himself used to sleep, the boatsteerers did, but they were not molested, while poor Tom couldnt sleep a minute without someone tricking him. 

Saturday 14th. 

All hands yesterday A. M. cleaned out the forecastle, hauling every chest on deck & thoroughly scrubbing the beams, bunk boards &c, with sand & water, till everything was clean & as white as the condition of the paint would allow.  The forecastle now looks quite tidy.  This completed our scrubbing of the ship.  Today we are painting the boats on the house.  Light & baffling winds, cloudy.  Last night while sitting on the spars lashed across the bows on the look out Mr Goland & Tripp & Manuel came forward & attempted to make the Dutchman fast, but he woke up.  Some 5 or 6 of the watch were lying on deck beneath the spars, asleep covered with jackets.  They next turned to Shanghai & made him fast around the ankle, then bending on the spun yarn by which he was made fast to one of the fore buntlines, they bowsed away, dragging the long legged fellow out from his berth beneath a pile of jackets till he brot up against the f. mast.  Half awake “Uncle Dudley” at first sang out “Who”  “whoa,” but roused by pain he cried out “hold on, hold on” but his merciless tormentors bowsed away till he brot up.  Then the boatsteerers roaring with laughter ran aft, while Mr Goland sang out “what’s the matter, get up there.  Here coil up your ropes,” and walked aft.  Shanghai was now thoroughly exasperated & was talking in a fighting strain to Tripp, when Mr Goland again came forward & cried “I made you fast, get up damned quick, or I’l haul you up”  “All right sir” said S as he raised his lubberly   awkward form from the deck & cast off the spun yarn lashing.  “Get up there all of you” said Mr Goland to the other sleepers.  “you’ve slept long enough on deck.  Dont let me catch you sleeping there any more.”  The rest roused themselves.  Now Mr Goland had told us that we might sleep on deck as much as we pleased & he would’nt disturb us, but he could’nt resist the inclination to fool with the men, & took this way to excuse himself, hardly a fair means.   Aside from the impropriety of an officer lowering himself to play tricks on his watch, Shanghai’s ankle was badly hurt by the small yarn cutting into the flesh.  But I didnt pity him any as he is willing enough to play the same game on others.  Shanghai gets along poorly.  He is awkwardness itself, & cant to this day make a common eye splice, but his humor makes him liked, though all laugh at his bumbling, lubberly work. 

Sunday 15th 

St Felix in sight at day break, appearing low, & ridged on the horizon.  Calm, but cloudy.  Found “Jane Eyre” among the books in the round house.  Delighted to see it — Mary H. Blacker on cover.  Johnny C. Lately has been amusing himself & all hands by the performances of a little wooden Merry Andrew with a string passing through his neck, which when taughtened is struck to the music of the banjo till the little dancer skips & trips in the oddest manner, to the huge delight of the Portugee & the admiration of wonder-loving Johnny.  Found a Wells grammer [sic], in which I have given lessons to F. Pillsbury.  Mate again “came out” in white duck, which becomes him.  I have now an immense amount of sewing to do, but cant muster energy enough to begin the labor, but must begin before long.  “Old Woman” has lined & braided a new straw hat for me.  All hands got new hack knives from Old Man the other day.  The thieves will soon make them scarce again.  You cant lay anything down for a moment, but you are sure to loose it, so dexterous & watchful are the light fingered gentry of the forecastle.  Commenced Jane Eyre — very pleasant to meet here on this old illiterate barke any traces of home refinement & taste.  Many are talking of running away, disgusted with whaling.  Shanghai I think perfectly sick of the Atkins Adams; Growler would give a small fortune to be back at his shoemakers bench; Frank P. is homesick, while Happy Jack is constantly cursing the “old tub.”  Some talk of nothing else, & it was only the forbidding aspect of Coral that hindered half a dozen more from leaving.  Not that our work is too hard or the discipline severe, but blubbering and its consequent stowing down & cleaning off & our lazy wandering about, our aimless drifting, cruising for our uncertain game, hope deferred & the future dim — all this disquiets us & resolves us to leave.  I shall leave at Paita, so will several more.

Monday 16th. 

Last night just abreast St Ambrose & to the westward St felix, fine night, very brilliant moonlight, Jack on lookout sewing, a large clipper ship that was discovered astern during the afternoon came up & passed us about 2 oclock.  Everything set — six topsails, in all 20 sails, while we had but 5 set.  She looked finely as she passed to windward between us & St Ambrose in the crystal moonlight.  Every sail distinct, & she gliding by as if “Spirits unseen did urge her keel” I felt a longing to be aboard her and quit the “old tub.”  Nothing more lovely than the night, nothing more beautiful than that ship with her lofty skysails & lower sails, her handsome hull & her eerie speed.  I walked the deck impatient on my restraint on this laggard barke, & longed to be on a moving quick winged ship.  This morning she being still in sight & it being a dead calm, our Cap lowered away with a picked crew and pulled aboard, a long pull of two hours, the ship being hull down right ahead.  The boat has just returned & reports her the Carrier Dove of New York bound into Callao from San Francisco, a large clipper, a beautiful craft.  All are delighted with her tidy, handsome decks, forecastle, rigging &c.  Luck brot me 5 San Francisco papers of last October dates.  Jack reports her short handed, with only sixteen hands, & that the Fraser river mines are a failure .

Tuesday May 17th 1859. 

We dont cruise any around St Felix, but are hastening to leeward, the Archer Ground.  Now blowing a young gale on our quarter & driving us under m. tsl & double reefed f. t. sl & fsl, 10 knots an hour.  Sunny, but clouds driving across the sky, the sea roused to intense blue & dotted with foam caps.  The “Carrier Dove” was driven from her course by a heavy norther to the windward of St Felix, though she was making Callao.  She lost during the gale several sail that were blown from the bolt ropes.  She was obliged to scud.   Our vessel easily overhauled her yesterday in a light wind, but today’s gale has driven her far out of sight.  I took the lee earing last night while reefing f. t. sl, but was ordered off by 3rd mate to give room to Manuel who was almost the last man aloft.  It seems that the mate has forbidden any foremast hand to take an earing while the boatsteerers are on duty, a very unfair & unsailor like order.  The boatsteerers may take their time to go aloft, & if we are to quick for them, we must wait for & give way to them.  I am disgusted with this.  Altogether too much license is given to these ambiguous semi officers, semi men.  They have all the insolence of command without any real authority and all the impudence of an officer without an officers rank.  I really cant go aloft to reef with any ardor.  I have no chance to show quickness or skill, but must give up to the orders and position of the boatsteerers.  Dutchman slept nearly all his morning watch below together with Shanghai, but Dutchman was caught by the 3rd mate who told him he should stay on deck for 4 days, but after breakfast told him to go below — so partial is he to the Teuton.  Shanghai was caught but a quick & dexterous lie avoided` punishment. I am full of excitement about “Jane Eyre.”  What a book for a woman — no, a mere girl — to write!  What originality, piquancy, energy, imagination & language!  I read it & forgot whaling.  The crassness of the forecastle, the low thoughted vulgarity of the crew, the insolent condescension of the officers, & my stagnant, un-mental life.  I does me good, its fervor quickens & its sentiment elevates me.  Its authoress died while the snow was on the ground — her death wintry as her life.

Thursday May 19th 1859. 

It has been blowing a gale for last two days.  Under double reefs, wind on quarter.  We have been hurrying to leeward, lying too at night & keeping off during day time.  Sea rugged, wind cold, blowing off land from S. E.  Night watches uncomfortable, very chilly, decks wet forward.  Notwithstanding this we will sleep on deck.  Lat about 22º Lon – 78º.  We lay too at night to avoid passing over any ground not scanned from masthead.  We might, if we ran during the night, pass a school of whales.  To show the difference between the vigilant lookouts of a whaleman & the careless lookouts of a merchantman, the Carrier Dove didnt see St Felix till 4 oclock in the afternoon, & didnt see us till she had passed us in the brilliant moon light, while we discovered her early in the afternoon & kept watch of her all night, & we made St Felix that day as soon as it was light.  Our mastheads of course make the difference.  Have just finished “Not So bad as we Seem,” a comedy by Bulwer & played at Devonshire House before the Queen, the characters represented by living authors, among them Dickens & Wilkie Collins.  What a feast it must have been. 

Friday May 20th 1859. 

Now steering close hauled under double reefs E. by N, bearing in with land.  Wind moderated a little, pleasant on deck.  Mate in breaking out water from m. hold this A. M. came across the bbl of vinegar & sung out for the foremast hands to bring their bottles.  I was at the wheel & lost my share, but have bought a bottle from Santa Anna — price, take his wheel to night.  Mate should have sent a bucket full forward & have it evenly divided. 

Saturday May 21st 1859. 

Still bearing in with the land.  I think we have met the S. E. trades, for the wind has been constant from that quarter for the past week.  Blowing cold, colder than around Masafuera, around which now I imagine the winds bluster continually. 

Sunday May 22nd 1859. 

Steering N. N. E. heading for Eureka bay, wind the same cold & raw, cloudy & chilly weather.  I took another lesson in navigation from the Old Man in after cabin yesterday.  Can now take latitude & longitude, but dont understand lunars yet.  Cook & Thompson Steward making molasses candy in galley.  Plenty of fin backs to be seen, but no sperm whales.  Thought of the dear friends at home today.  Finished “Lay of the Last Minstrel” yesterday.  Read Milton every other night when I have 8 hours in.  Shakespeare comes in rather irregularly, but I dont neglect him.  Spent half of my morning watch in teaching — grammer, arithmetic, spelling & writing.  Feel a slight headache today.  We wash off deck every Saturday night with ashes, & then have all day Sunday without work, except setting or taking in sails.  All hands read, write, gamm or sew.  The forecastle noisy all day, cant sleep so much noise. 

Monday May 23rd 1859. 

Still under double reefs — wind the same, chilly & sea rugged.  Last night during first watch saw a remarkable exhibition.  The heavens were curtained with thick clouds that shed a deep darkness over the sea.  The wind freshening somewhat we furled the f. sl.  As I went aloft I was surprised to see the brilliance of the sea.  The ship was swimming in a sea of stars, for the waves broke about her bows & sides in flashing flakes of foam that danced & sparkled like tiny fire goblins; little fire drops dripped from her head & martingale into the gleaming scintillating waters below, & the glowing waves as they parted before her rooled away in silver light podwered (?) with glancing eyes till they faded in the dark sea beyond.  The darkness increased the brilliant phosphorescence.  We were furling the sail when from the yard arm we saw a large fish to leeward making for the ship, his course marked by a gleaming trail.  As he crossed our bows he spouted, when we knew it was a fin back.  Attracted probably by the flashing foam caused by the ship the monster swam to & fro across our bows, spouting constantly in silver jets of spray & darting swiftly along, now rising, now sinking.  His speed caused the water to gleam like the milky way, and left leaving behind him a sinuous wavy track of light that deepened in splendor to the fish itself & like a comets “mane” died away gradually into darkness.  We watched him as he darted along beside us, or astern, or ahead, till at last he crossed our forefoot directly under the f. j boom & we could see the sparkling radiance from his body mingle with the dancing white hues about our bows. A more beautiful sight I never saw.  We could see away on the horizon waves cresting into radiant foam that gleamed for a moment through the night & then sank into the sea.  It was worth a voyage to witness such glorious scenes.  Got a San Francisco Herald from Mrs Wilson together with “Grace Lee” and one or two more papers.  The Herald contained last March dates, and much important news, among other the passage by the N. York assembly of a personal liberty bill opposed to the fugitive slave bill.  I reclined on the bows and mused on the consequences of the act & on the whole disapproved it.  I lay looking over the bows at the starry sea beneath & thought what I could say on the subject if it were broached in Massachusetts.  The wild beauty of the sea stirred up my thoughts & mentally I made a long speech that gave entire satisfaction to its audience & elicited rapturous applause.  Shall I ever revisit intellectual Boston or raise one word in the utterances of free thoughts by free speech?  Or again associate with education & refinement & eloquence?  “In tempore restat.” 

Wednesday 25th 1859. 

Wind still the same, S. E trades.  We have been setting up head stays & have kept off before the wind — W.S.W — to ease the stays.  Constantly cloudy but no rain.  Today setting up main fore & aft stays.  Old Man broke out pipes & tobacco for us on Monday.  I got a dozen new pipes.  Have begun to teach Dutchman spelling & Frank Willy has commenced grammer.  Mate sent Shanghai out yesterday to cast off the f. j. tack.  S didnt know what the tack was or how to cast it off, & the mate getting angry gave him a hearty damning, telling him he wished he would run away & that there werent but two or three hands in the ship that could do anything; that they might all go to the devil for all him — in all a very foolish speech, the mate waving his long crooked flipper & swearing roundly in his peculiar way.  He likes to blow.  I detest his manner.  He uses unusual terms to a green hand & gets angry if he isnt understood.  He xxx (?) overboard sometime since the tiller spit box, & forbade anyone to spit tobacco while at the wheel, but the Old Man quietly made himself a nice spittoon for the tiller so that anyone can chew as much as he pleases at the wheel.  The mate doesnt chew, but the Old Man does.

Thursday May 26th 1859. 

Steering W. by S, before the wind.  Constantly cloudy.  Now for near two weeks this weather has continued, while we have been under double reefs all the while, setting up stays & tarring down.  Dutchman gave me an account of his life the other night.  He has had to take care of himself since he was 4 years old, & has seen hard times with a drunken master to him [sic]he was apprenticed as farmers boy.   He was flogged with horse whips & sticks till neighbors interfered, & he finally ran away.  He was sleeping in deck pot last night when Manuel, who is constantly annoying us during the night watches, roused him up, & Mr G threw some water in his face.  Dutchman angry was talking loud, when Mr G came forward & ordered him out of the pot & not to turn in there again during the voyage, as usual covering his own tricks by a punishment to those luckless objects of his fun.  Men turn into this pot when it is nearly full of wood.  I cant sleep in it, but some will lay there an entire watch.  Are heading now from Eureka bay towards Archer ground.  It has been too cloudy for me to do anything in navigation.  Old Man told me to use his quadrant whenever I wanted to.  I divide the grub now, & mess with the Dutchman.  The grub game, especially for potatoes, is now suspended for a while.  Happy Jack made a slush lamp last night as our b. fish oil, the dregs of the barrel, will hardly burn, but his laniards caught afire, the pan blazed up, & Jacks “flambeau” was a failure.  He was obliged to sit up and watch it.  Cockroaches are beginning to wake up.  Occasionally a big fellow will run by my head I as I lay in my bunk, but I dont mind them. 

Friday May 27th. 

Wind on quarter, steering W. by S, tarring down.  Portugee do almost all the tarring down, as they are light, swung in a boatswain’s chair they ride down the fore & aft stays.  I have been at work seizing on jumpers & battons.  We have lost the albatross & have instead the boobie a handsome bird, but nothing like the albatross, the eagle of the ocean in spread of wing, in steady, confidant flight, & in spirit & proud courage.  We lost sight of the albatross in about 27º south.  The boobies are inquisitive & strangely stupid.  One flew in broad daylight against the f. j. stay & keeled over a dozen times before he reached the water to leeward, where he lay for some time as if stunned with drooping head & wing; & at last spreading & flapping his ineffectual wings he drifted astern, a warning to all boobies not to be too inquisitive, especially about f. j. stays.  Mrs Wilson sent for me last night to ask about some lineament for Johnny’s leg, & inviting me to sit down, as it was my watch below.  Talked with me for half an hour or more, gossiping with true womanly vivacity, till the Cap came down, when I took a lesson in navigation.  Johnny smuggled to me about 8 bells a nice fresh mince pie & a loaf of spice cake, a present from the old woman, made by her own hands.  Decidedly good they tasted, as Shanghai & I discussed them & home thoughts.  It is astonishing how suggestive a mince pie may be.  Have commenced “Marmion”  Lon 80.19º Lat 19.25. 

Saturday 28th 1859. 

Under double reefs, tarring down & setting up mizzen rigging.  Shanghai was tarring down the lee mizzen topmast & l. g. backstays yesterday afternoon & I was tending the halliards to the boatswains chair, when S, singing out for me to hoist, I swigged away & ran him chock up to the eyes of the rigging.  “Hold on” shouted S in a decided hurry as he shot up between the stays & jammed fast.  I roared out to see him awkwardly getting himself loose, & as he came slowly down the back stays tarring as he came, the stays being slack & the ship rooling, he swung to and fro, clutching at the rigging & thrashing about till I was fairly exhausted with laughing at his absurdly ridiculous & awkward, frightened motions.  Saw from the mast head a large breack [sic] & several blows about 6 miles on weather bow.  Cap told me to luff 2 1/2 points to bring the whales to leeward, but a squall passing over, hid them from sight.  Cod fish, potatoes, & slush for dinner, the best meal we have. 

Sunday May 29th 1859. 

Now I suppose on cruising ground, the Archer ground, as we lay close hauled at night but stood W. by S during day time.  Very bad & squally weather, squalls of wind & rain, sea rugged & sky cloudy.  Saw, while at mast head, a booby that has accompanied us for the last 10 days, distinguishable by his pure white body & wings half white & half brown.  Saw said booby while soaring 50 or 60 feet above the sea suddenly stop as if shot, & edging his wings to the fresh gale dart down like a flash & cleave the wave with his pointed beak & body, disappearing in a circle of foam & white water for a moment & then rising & breasting the waves like a cork.  I have never seen the albatross dive, & the splendid & courageous dart of this boobie for his prey — flying fish that have again appeared for the first time in the Pacific — has very considerably increased my respect for the birds.  To dive from such a height in such fine style into such a sea indicates no mean spirit & courage.  I saw the bird dive several times.  Saw a threatening squall pass astern with black bulging clouds edged with a flaunting rainbow, a fine sight.  Matches are becoming scarce in forecastle, & large prices are asked for them by those who chance to have any left.  Shanghai & I watched by turns last night while one of [us] turned in on a chest, & the other stood under the scuttle hatch on the lookout for boatsteerers or 3rd mate.  All hands disgusted with the weather & hope we shant have to lower for whales.  The Pacific thus far has been to me anything but that serene sea it has been described by voyagers.  The severest gales & most rugged weather we have experienced in this ocean.  There have been days of beautiful & calm weather, but then in the Atlantic we had the same, at times. 

Tuesday May 31 1859. 

Lay too last night, very nasty weather, heavy wind & rain squalls frequent.   Saw while at mast head a large ominous rain squall pass on either beam, while I went to masthead in a violent squall that passed over us, casting its chill shroud over the ship & sea.  Now before wind heading W.N.W.  Mate, calling me the lightest man in the watch, sent me to tar down f. jib stay.  Slung in boatswain’s chair, I rode down this slight stay swinging athwart ships as the ship rooled, clinging on with one hand & tarring with the other.  Thought the mate had something in store for me when he saw me laughing at Shanghai & Tom tarring down mizzen l. g. & topmost backstays.  2nd mate makes the Portugee do this work but mate patronizes us “American seamen.  2nd mate dont send men to complete tarring jobs begun by mates watch.  Mate does.  Cap sold at auction the contents of the old cooks chest, to his watch.  Rapid sale.  Mate puts Tripp, his boatsteerer, forward as much as he can, & Tripp thus favored has all the authority of the mate himself, insolently ordering the men about, speaking sharp & quick.  He is much disliked, a sardonic, coarse fellow, who carries everything he can worm out of a foremast hand aft to the mate, who makes decided capital of his information.  I verily believe the mate has no friend aboard ship save Tripp.  Yet he is in many respects a kind man & a good seaman, though the Old Man has but little confidence in him as a whaleman.  Have hired Cola Chichi to do my mending for me for the cruise, for a silk neckerchief.  Wednesday

June 1st 1859. 

Steering full & by, S. by E, weather same.  Kept off to W for blows, but they proved fin backs. Still setting up rigging, I painting & seizing on battons.  Caught two very large dolphins so large that my line parted.  Had to iron them before we could haul them inboard.   Salted them down.  What beautiful fish they are.  They swim along side with the ship, steadily xxx (?) their way just under the surface of the water.  During the night they flashed brilliantly as they swam around the ship, revelling in the starry foam that surrounded us.  Mate had a ludicrous rencontre with Thompson last dog watch as we were washing off.  T. spilt some oil on the quarter deck.  Mate spoke to him about it rather sharply.  T. waxed saucy when the mate ordered him to clean it up.  T. walked aft.  When the mate told him to come back, T. said he wouldnt, & walked on.  Mate sung out 3 or 4 times, but T. never stopped or turned round.  Mate ran after him, & collaring him, shook him till his breath was near gone, swearing he would shake his liver out of him.  “Shake away,” cried T., when the mate throttled him, & T. poor fool flung down his lamp on deck like a sullen child & muttering threats which the mate tried to choke back.  “Damn you,” cried the mate, “you want a thrashing.  I’ld strike you if you’re a man.  I want a man to strike, not such a miserable puppy as you are,” and then commenced one of his harangues which was interrupted by the Old Man coming from cabin & asking what was the matter.  Mate said T. spilt oil &c., that he ordered him to clean it up, when he turned his —– back on him & deliberately walked away.”  At the same time the mate imitated T. jerking step so as to set us all alaughing.  “Old Man” said nothing, & T. finally went to the galley.  All hands enjoyed the scene, for T is such a stupid half idiot that his pluck was exceedingly absurd.  Growler & Joe came near fighting last night, but they were satisfied with blackguarding each other in the coarsest rowdy style, getting onto high fighting ground, but neither taking up the others gauntlet.  Two sail in sight, one bearing down to us.  Old Man showed me how to take the sun with his quadrant, & told me to go down into the cabin after dinner and take a lesson in navigation.

Thursday June 2nd 1859. 

Gammed the Philip Delanoye of Fairhaven.  She crossed our stern & luffed up with m. yard aback, when her Old Man came aboard.  Our mate didnt like to lower in the very rugged sea, so Old Man told Miller he could go.  Miller sung out to us to man the boat, & 5 of us jumped in, the ship rooling on the heavy sea, & the little boat rising some times even with the ships deck & sinking down even with her keel.  Spry work jumping in, nearly got stove under ships quarter.  Pulled aboard in a high & rugged sea that would rool us up & passing under us would drop the boat bodily with a spank into the water.  Miller told us to say that the mate was sick.  He was ashamed that the mate should refuse to gamm, afraid of the rugged water.  P. D. out over 3 yrs., 1300 sp, crew all cruisers, most of them Kanaka’s, large & black dirty forecastle, two bright little cabin boys, one of them a Scottish boy who ran away from an English man of war — had been to Sebastopol during the siege — gave me a little book containing a story for children — bright little fellow.  Steward from Boston, a young fellow, who intends to remain this side, on shore.  Many remain on the coast, where they do well.  P. D. has the rigging & chains, anchors &c. of the barke Susan wrecked at Esmeralda.  I talked with 3rd mate, an intelligent Portugee from Nantucket, who was curious about times in the States.  Came aboard about dusk.  Supper aboard the P. D.   3 yrs old bread, Talcahuano beef & pork, cold potatoes & sour soft tack.  However the Kanaka’s did their best to entertain us, giving us pipes & tobacco & making the best they could of their broken English.  P. D. again crossed our stern before wind & lay too for her skipper who soon left us & went aboard his ship.  P. D. set a light in her rigging & was seen during the first watch, but we left her hull down this A M.  Not a very good gamm.  Sea so rugged that it broke over our decks, & could see from the P. D. our old barke show her keel & copper, she rooled so heavily.  Steward of P. D. got paid off for his last years cruse – 32 cents!!  Met some of the old Virginia’s crew on the P. D. who shipped at Talcahuano, as all hands, mate & all, left the Virginia, who didnt take a drop of sp oil during a 7 months cruse, & consequently had nothing to divide.  3rd mate with grey hairs.  Heard that Junior Mutineers had been convicted.  But 4 or 5 whalers now on this ground.  Too early for the fleet. 

Friday June 3rd 1859. 

Took the sun today:  Lat 18.27.  Worked out Lon last night with the Old Man both by English & French chronometers.  Lon 89.23.  Now making an eastern board by short tacks two per day, as we have reached the limits of the crusing ground that lies roughly between 17-20 Lat & 80 & 90 Lon.  Weather moderate, but rain squalls frequent & sea rugged.  Mate putting fancy caps on the ends of the mizzen rigging.  Have been at work on f. l. mast and l. g. back stays tarring down, seizing on & fitting and painting battons, a job the mate entrusted wholly to me.  Have been two days at work on this as I have but two hours a day to work on them. mast heads & wheels taking up the rest of my watches on deck.  Thompson sick again with boils we have as a consequence poor grub.  Steward says T. is taking his life blood by making him do all the work. 

Sunday June 5th 1859. 

Weather miserable, constantly cloudy, sea rugged.  3 sails in sight.  Gammed “Valparaiso” of N. B. yesterday, out 33 months, 800 sp.  She was a little off our lee bow in the morning, but we made sail & left her astern.  She hauled up her mainsail inviting us to gamm, but our Old Man kept on close hauled till about 4 P.M. when we kept off & ran down to her.  Her skipper invited our Old Man to come aboard, but his wife being sick our Old Man invited him to come aboard, & in a little while his boat lowered & brot him aboard.  Our mate returned in the boat to the Valparaiso, & we who remained aboard entertained the V.s crew, all cruisers, two of them hard chaps.  We passed the evening in singing & gamming as usual, till 10, when the boat returned.  Heard strange stories about sharks haunting a ship with sick or dead men aboard; one large shark following a whaler having a dead Kanaka aboard till he was hove overboard, & diving after the body & not appearing again.  Heard that the old Virginia has a bad reputation for gamming, the Valparaiso being gammed by her last cruse, till her skipper was sick of the old bark and would crowd sail to get out of her way, heaving overboard an old cask of bread — which the Virginia picked up & then came aboard for a gamm!!  Our fellows got a pack of cards from the Valparaiso & today are playing 45s for tobacco.  I tell them they’l curse the cards before they get through with them.  At work rattling down yesterday.  J. C. L. cut my hair & whiskers today.  Dutchman inquiring of one of the crusers how to get from Paita to California or to Callao.  This cruser, an irish boy from New York city, has been out here 7 years, dissipating every cent he has earned in drinking &c.  Left the Roscius, in which he had a good voyage of $500, at Talcahuano because he was drunk, & has been on the coast ever since.  He is but a type of hundreds of the sperm whale crusers — crusers all eager for pipes & tobacco. 

Tuesday June 7, 1859. 

Weather still bad, squalls frequent, constantly cloudy, difficult to get the sun.  Hold our own in about 18.20 & 90.  Steward & old woman got into a dispute about making bread.  Steward got mad & insulted old woman.  By & by Old Man came down, heard of the insult, & caught steward by beard with one hand & by the ear with the other and gave the old grey headed steward a hearty shaking, leaving the marks of his fingers on the stewards cheek & lecturing him in round terms.  Steward pretended he had cut himself with his razor & is now completely disgusted with whaling.  He told me this morning while at the wheel that we wanted to get into port, i.e., to have a chance to run.  What with Thompsons wretched & dirty habits & the Old Man’s handling, no wonder the former midshipman wearies of his unpleasant berth.  Old Man called all hands aft to the waist last dog watch & substituted boats crews watches instead of half watches, 3 boats crews each standing 3 hours & 40 minutes from 7 till to when all hands are called, the last night watch having the morning watch below, the middle having the afternoon watch below, & the first having all day on deck.  Thus we rotate, two men at masthead forward.  I & Dutchman stand together.  Each man picks out a friend in his watch to stand with.  Old Man said:  “If I catch any of you looking down on deck I’ll send down that fore royal yard.  You dont any of you look aft, but once up there, you look straight ahead or down at the f. j. boom.  There aint anything down there.  Now mind what I tell you, keep a sharp lookout,” and to impress this order he added clinking some dollars in his hand:  “Who have raised oil?”  Tripp sung out:  “I’ve raised 150 bbls.”  Manuel cried out he had raised 50, & Ellis claimed as much more; & Tripp sung out:  “I dont count them I raised & didnt take any of them,” a piece of information that made us all roar.  The Old Man good-naturedly laughing called to Tripp & with some little care rattled out to the boatsteerers open hand six silver dollars, then gave Manuel two & Ellis two; & the boatsteerers resumed their seats on the vice bench jingling their bounties to show us forward hands how smart the main masthead lookouts were kept.  I could’nt but admire the tact of the Old Man in distributing this money before all hands & in introducing boats crews watches at a time when all hands were complaining of the bad weather & the consequent disagreeable night watches.  The officers stand their watches as usual the Old Man & mate having all night in, & the other two mates standing half watches.  The mate always turns out at daylight, & the Old Man about 6 1/2.  The starboard boats crew were distributed among the other boats.  Johnny the boatsteerer & I to bow boat, “Cola Chichi” to waist boat & F. Pillsbury to larboard boat.  Thus Shanghai & Frank, who came from the same town, stand together.  They have before been in separate watches.  Frank a bright, active boy, Shanghai a confirmed lubber with a coarse & very vulgar wit that to his ship mates in a measure atones for his remarkable awkwardness.  We reef topsails every evening after supper & reduce sail to double reefs, sometimes leaving out the f. s. & j.  As usual there is plenty of rivalry between the watches..  We who attend the forward sails boast our selves the smartest at reefing & furling.  It is amusing to see the eagerness with which we spring aloft to reef, & our cheering crys pierce the silent night as we haul out our earings or bowse cheerily on our halliards.  Johnny now in my watch has resumed his lessons.  I found he hadnt looked over his lesson this morning, we having the m. watch below, so with the authority of your true pedagogue, I refused to hear him, & told him to get the same lesson for next time.  Also set Manuel a lesson.  Old Man killed 3 ducks the other day & as a savoury smelling mess went down to the cabin & the spicey fragrance from the pastry enveloped duck pie came stealing deliciously to my nose, I reverted with a sigh to the confects & pastries of home, & a vision of white napkins, silver forks, clean china, smoking meats, steaming vegetables & quivering jellies all crowned by respectful attendance & decent conversation rose before me, but faded as a beautiful picture would corrode & fade away to blackened & unsightly blotches before the attack of a vitriol charged squirt gun, as dirty heeled & filthy fingered Thompson passed me with his duff & salt junk for our forecastle dinner.  What habits we have?  Cleaning our pans with a rinse of coffee or tea from the bucket, wiped off with some chance oakum.  Coffee bucket sometimes mistaken for slop bucket or — “prodigious” Domine Sampson would swear — for the ____barrel; meat kids kicking about forecastle, molasses kegs the haunts of the cockroach, our bunks & heads the established homes of vermin of decidedly enterprising genius; hands, faces, & locks in a state of very dirty nature; & our clothes patched like a fancy quilt, & still further variegated by the various stains of tar, slush & oil; or not sweetly, but strongly, redolent of the P barrel or the mingled fragrance of lye & oil soap; & lastly the forecastle, unlike Coleridge’s bologne, filled with a combination of lesser stinks that would defy analysis, but presided over & overpowered by “un grand monarque”– the audible, sensible, almost visible “mephitis” that selects the forecastle for its peculiar abode, & the theatre of its loudest speeches & the display of its wildest & most fantastic tricks.  Bah!  What an idea!  Personifying a — whew!  My faecal fancy is worse than the forecastle.  Every night the forecastle silence is broken by the hum or excited whispering of the card players, who gamble for tobacco, sitting 4 or 5 players with a greasy pack of cards, all smoking, little piles of tobacco on their monte table — a chest.  Some cursing their luck, others silently but greedily taking in their stakes.  By standers and by sitters interested in the game by bets or the fascination of luck, its fortunes & reverses, one insinuating his sly hand behind a player & extracting a few bits from his pile, & all surmounted by ascending wreathes from the numerous pipes that crown with their grey fillets of smoke these priests as they sacrifice to the gamblers God.  Tobacco changes hands rapidly.  Their stock is limited, so they divide a plug into six pieces, & for this forsaking sleep & comfortable bunks, they gamble & talk till sleep disgusted quits, nemesis like, the forecastle, & players & non players in vain appease & court the return of the angry goddess.  I ridicule in every way this passion, refuse to give tobacco to the Dutchman & John whose tobacco I keep from thieves in my chest securely locked; & grumble & growl till I am fairly rivalling the hitherto unrivalled Growler himself.  Have finished rattling down the mizzen rigging.  I have learnt considerable sailorizing during this job, but I havent finished the f. back stays, the girtline still rove as I left it.  The mate has putt me to better business, rattling down & setting up rigging.  Dutchman & Tom now grumbling forenoon watch away.  Have finished Grace Lee[1] in one or two respects a powerful tale, & am now reading Scotts Tales of a Grandfather 3 series & Marmion.  Writing about our odorous home I have known Shanghai when on deck in his wilful mad spirit of mischief & coarse tricking, go to the forecastle hatch & pointing his breach down the gangway discharge such a tearing report that the sleepers have actually started in their bunks.  I blush to record this, my journal ineffectually rejects the recording characters from her pure leaves, but resolutely, though reluctantly, I stain her pages with my faithful yet shameful narrative. 

Thursday June 9th 1859. 

Lowered for black fish yesterday.  Large school of large fish.  We sailed & rowed, but in vain, we couldnt get nearer than 2 or 3 darts from them, but they appeared to enjoy the sport of baffling us, for they would gambol in the water, breaching & blowing & frisking like so many porpoises, now with their graceful, bended plunges from wave to wave, now shoving their black noses & half their body out from the sea up towards heaven & now blowing their vapory spout like a mimic fountain.  We would paddle, pull or sail apparently right among them, but keeping just out of a long dart, they tantalized us by showing fins as large as a small whales hump.  Great fellows, how they excited us.  Manuel danced about with his iron, poising for a dart, singing out with quick breath “pull, pull, just ahead, luff a little sir, a little more sir” or as we sitting on the gunwales facing the bows, paddling like so many Indians in a canoe, the boat rooling in the very heavy sea, so that we had to brace ourselves to keep from falling over board, as we paddled, we could see our game breaching among the waves, leaving behind them great spots of white foam, or so near that we could see them under water like a brown shadow gliding along just ahead.  The old barke a mile or two to leeward with her main yard aback lay pitching sullenly on the sea, and after pulling for an hour to leeward, we lost sight of the fish, so we stood off for the ship, the mate luffing & waiting for 2nd mate, & then neck & neck racing with him down to the ship, setting his g. topsail to keep up with him.  Rather dangerous work getting into boats, for the moment they struck the water when lowered down they tossed about like an egg shell in a gale, & we had to watch our chance, hanging from the ships chains & jump when a wave brot the boat under us.  Had a long conversation about spiritualism & religion with mate while on deck this A.M.  Has the common idea that morality is religion, a little in advance of the sailors idea that Heaven will open to him because he has had a hard time on earth.  Dont think the mate did right to talk so long with me when both were on duty, but didnt object so long as he was willing. 

Saturday 11th 1859. 

Wind moderate, under all sail, but cloudy as ever.  Sea a little quiet; Lon as I made it night before last 91.08, Lat 19.10.  Have seen several sail in the distance, two in sight now.  Mrs Wilson sent me some more pie & cake.  Capital interchange with salt horse & hard bread.  Saw a remarkable rain bow while at mast head,  fine rain driving down on us, about 2 1/2 P.M, the sun yet high, a complete circle with well defined colors was visible, extending obliquely from 11 or 12 degrees above the horizon to the ships side, the ship meeting the edge of the circle in a tangent, a fine sight & one I think rarely seen.  Rattling down main rigging.  Boatsteerers do most of the rattling down, but I do a little now & then, & like the work.  While at wheel this morning, ship steering with half a spoke, I was leaning on wheel with both hands in my pockets, ie of my jacket, when mate came aft to binnacle, looked at compass a minute, & then said “A, if you were master of a ship & saw the man at the wheel with his hands in his pockets, what would you say, do you think you would shoulder it?” I answered “No sir, I’d tell him to take his hands out of his pockets & mind his business.”  The mate laughed & walked forward, while I amused at the mates hint took hold of the spokes with both hands & luffed half a point.  Mate sometimes as pleasant “as a mice”[sic] & sometimes as cross as a bear.  Sometimes “Dont break down that wheel A”, sometimes sharply “How do you head there?   If you are going to steer the ship, steer her; if not, let some one else go there who can steer.”  The foremast hands, sharpened by the display of the bounties, are singing out for every thing, not looking for confirmation to main mast.  We have raised finbacks & blackfish.  The boatsteerers make fun of us, pretend they saw the breaches or blows half an hour before we sung out &c, but the officers tell us to go ahead.  Gave Johnny & Manuel reading & writing lesson in steerage, when I go every morning watch below & smoke my pipe & teach these boatsteerers. 

Sunday June 12th 1859. 

The first fine day since we have been on this ground, a beautiful cloudless, warm & serene day.  Under everything, even f. t. g. sl.  J. C. Lately as usual cutting hair — the barber of the forecastle — shaving & washing, one razor answering for all hands, most of the razors having been traded for anicou at Fort Coral.  Last night while gamming with F. Willy in forecastle I was called on deck to help make up a set for a cotillion, being honored as the lady of Curly.  We were at a loss for music & were stepping to the hummed air of Johnny the Boatsteerer & the orders of the dancing master Jack, when Shanghai rushed up from forecastle & jumping up on the oil cask lashed foreward of the windlass & squatting his long legs on the cask head, began a toot toot on an old tin funnel, followed by Johnny Come Lately on an old tin bread pan for a drum.  We greeted our band with shouts, & to the music of our mimic french horn & kettle drum chassed up & down, & joining hands by partners promenaded with double quick steps round the forecastle deck making the deck ring with our laughter & the rattling music — both music and steps getting quicker & quicker till Terpsichore herself would have fled agast, & home belles and beaus have fainted at the sight.  Our fun was suddenly interrupted by the order to shorten sail, and our quick stepping was only rivalled by our agility aloft, for we reduced sail in unusually short time.

Tuesday June 14th 1859. 

Fine weather continued, occasional rain squalls, no whalers seen.  Lat as I made it 19.24.  While at mast head saw a school of dolphins, some 20 of them, swimming around ship — towards evening, sun setting in full splendor, the fish as they swam gracefully of an intense blue and showing the lively colors from their waving tails & bodies, their waved coats dropt with gold & crimson & purple, gleaming & flashing in the clear sun light as I have never seen them before.  We tried to strike them with the granges & catch them with my line, but they were to cunning, & kept just out of reach, setting in gaudy hues till they disappeared & again appearing in their sea of colors.  I was reminded of a similar scene in Falconers Shipwreck.[2]

                        And now, approaching near the lofty stern
                        A school of sportive dolphins they discern.
                        From burnished scales they beamed refulgent rays
                        Till all the glowing ocean seemed to blaze.
                        What radiant changes strike the astonished sight.
                        What glowing hues of mingled shade and light!
                        Not equal beauties gild the lucid west
                        With parting beams all oer profusely drest
                        Not livelier colors paint the vernal dawn
                        When orient beams impearl the ennameled lawn –
                        Than from their sides in bright suffusion flow
                        That now with gold empyreal seemed to glow –
                        Now in pellucid sapphires meet the view
                        And emulate the soft celestial hue –
                        Now beam a flaming crimson on the eye
                        And now assume the purple’s deeper dye —
                        Soon to the sport of death the crew repair
                        Dart the long lance or spread the baited snare.

The mate, to whom I lent this poem, expressed his admiration of its beauty & remarked that its descriptions were in general very accurate.  In last dog watch, in a beautiful moon light, the sea calm, the winds still, everything clewed down, we again danced a cotillion on forecastle deck.  Old Man & woman aft looking on & officers in waist enjoying our fun.  Music sitting on spars over forecastle, while we, kicking off our shoes, tripped away in the lightest style.  Johnny C. L. put on a long night gown that Libby gave me that reached to his feet.  I stuffed in my feather pillow & a pair of breeches, & confining this by a strap round his waist with imitated hoops, Jack made quite a fat old woman whom we dubbed Molly, & who graced my side as my partner.  Amid jokes & roars of laughter Jack cut a hornpipe with steps that would have showed white stockings & a neat slipper on a belle, but unfortunately for us showed nothing but the bare feet & dungarees of our merry monkey of a jack.  Old Man liked the fun but didnt like our music for old woman brot up on deck a new accordion & calling Charly aft consigned it to him with the injunction to use it well.  Charly came foreward, delighted, & mounting the spars struck up Fishers Hornpipe, & the strains sounding through the calm evening animated us till Jack — or Molly & our barefooted stepping got the whole ships company in a roar — from the old woman to cabin boy.  We were dancing away, when someone sung out “Hullo, there’s a boat” & we saw on looking to windward a whale boat sweeping along the calm sea & rapidly approaching us.  “Strike up Charly, let em know we’re around” sang out the 3rd mate, & we resumed our dancing, Jack calling out the steps in a voice that could be heard half a mile.  The boat soon shot aside, & Cap Clark of the barke Chili of N. B. jumped aboard, followed by his crew.  The old Chili had been running down towards us before the wind all the afternoon, but the winds were so light that she couldnt get near enough for a gamm, & we had given up all idea of speaking her till today, but her Old Man, when his ship was about 2 miles off, set a light & lowered down, & came along side us in the midst of our dancing.  Our mate returned with a crew & the gammers remained on board.  One darkey, called Dick, was a cruser on the A. A. last voyage & our 3rd mate greeted him as he came aboard with “Hullo, Dick, how are you?”  “Well Charly Goland, that you, what you doing round here?”  “Oh fishing a little” replied Mr G, & the niggers white teeth gleamed as he caught up the answer.  “Fishing – hey – yaw – yaw,” & he laughed till his big lips were as thin as an eel skin.  Our fellows who went aboard had a merry time dancing & singing, sanding the waist deck & dancing fore & afters to the din of 3 drums, a pipe, triangle, fiddle & bones, the officers & our mate enjoying the sport.  We aboard ship treated our guests as usual, giving them pipes & tobacco, & exchanging songs or gamming till about 11, when our mate returned, & Cap Clark with a good share of our Old Mans liquor in him went aboard his ship.  They told us hard yarns about this skipper — that he got drunk often & when boozy would go aloft with two spy glasses & sing to keep the ship steady.  All crusers aboard the Chili.  She has taken 150 bbls of this ground this season, the only ship that has taken anything.  Out 33 months, 900 sp, Heard tough stories about times in Talcahuano, where the two rival parties of Damonti & Crusa & fighting for supremacy.  Plenty of beach combers there, officers as well as crusers, who cant get a ship, & who — they say — have to dig clams for a living.  Crusa’s party took Talcahuano & enlisted many of the beach combers at $30.00 per month, $20.00 advance, & [for] the rest had only to cry “Viva Crusa” to get plenty of rum, a task too easy to be refused for such pay.  Shanghai & Dutchman & Growler ask every cruser they meet about Paita & the chances for running away, taking each cruser into a corner and gamming away in a low tone.  They are making sure of leaving at next port.  Now breaking out a cask of molasses & some rice, tea & sugar to exchange for dried apples &c with the Chili, who now on our weather quarter about 5 miles off is cracking on all sail to overhaul us.  Studied lunars below by lamplight while it was my watch on deck.  Tom fast asleep by me on a chest. 

Friday June 17th 1859. 

Light winds, sea smooth, under full sail.  Yesterday we had the aggravating pleasure to see a whaler about 6 miles to windward make fast to a whale & lay with foreyard aback while they hauled the whale along side.  Our Old Man set everything immediately and beat towards the ship, but we did not overhaul her till about midnight, when we could see  her about 2 miles off with lanterns hung up to see to cut up with.  Think her the Chili, or the Valparaiso.  All keeping a sharp lookout for whales.  The season as yet is early.  Men at main mast head with their glasses could see the whales flurry & the boats out, but we poor fellows forward could see nothing but the ship hove aback.  Last Wednesday about 3 P. M bore down to the old Chili that lay with her mainsail hauled up waiting for us.  A barke to windward of us, seeing us haul up our mainsail as we kept off, took it as an invitation to gamm, and kept off also under all sail for us, but apparently disappointed that we didnt wear round & bear up, she luffed again & kept to her course.  The Chili lowered a boat & Cap. Clark came aboard with a crew of Americans.  Our mate returned with a cask of molasses — old cockroach molasses — to the Chili, & I jumped in & helped pull aboard.  Fortunately the sea was’nt very rugged, or else we might have capsized as the heavy cask in the stern of the slight boat settled her so & made her so unsteady that we had to row with great care to prevent any mishap.  As we came along side the old Chili that lay heavily rooling on the swells, showing her copper and old battered sides & lifting her tub of a bow or her old square stern, our mate kept a running fire of jokes on her & was answered back by Tripp, who is very familiar with this officer, in fact his protege.  The mate even doubled the strength of the pendant of the tackle that the mate of the Chili — a rough but pleasant looking man with broad hat and quaker vest on — had prepared, but that officer, saying slowly that he guessed it would hoist that cask, our mate told us to be careful to push the boat out the moment the cask left the boats sides so that if it did fall, we should’nt get stove.  But the cask was safely hoisted in board, & climbing up, we were greeted by our friends the gammers of the preceding evening, who invited us down into the forecastle.  We found the forecastle 3 times as large as our own, as large as a good sized room, & a fine place for a dance.  We gammed as usual till after supper, when the drums, tambourine & bones began to beat up recruits for a dance, & at last the steward came down, a curly-headed, fine looking negro, & one of the most intelligent fellows that I have met since I left home; & striking up on his fiddle, all hands left the forecastle for the deck, where we danced fore & afters to the music of the band that was seated on the windlass.  We danced away till about 8, when another boat came along side, bringing our 2nd mate & the 2nd mate of the “Sea Queen.”  This was the barke we had seen to windward, & towards evening she bore down on us, & by 8 came up with us in a fine moonlight.  The 3 barkes lay nearly in a triangle on a quiet sea in nearly a dead calm, while the moon now at the full, shed a brilliant light over the ocean, & shone with elfish gleam on the white sails of the 3 ships.  We could see in the distance two other ships gamming, & amidst this scene of quiet beauty, beneath the moon, joining with the new boats crew we danced away, sanding the decks & kicking off our shoes as we formed two cotillion parties & kept the decks alive, crowded as we were, with our shouts & laughter & music.  I was lady to a stout negro who laughed till he was hoarse, & we all laughed & sung till we were nearly all hoarse, & finally weary even of this sport the crews repaired to the forecastle where  they enlivened the remainder of the night with songs, cards, smoking & gamming.  I did not join them, but reclining on the toprail of the bow, sat listening to the yarns of the steward, who has been to sea nearly all his life.  He was steward of the Betsy Williams at the time her cook was put ashore on Charles island, & he gave me a full account of this cowardly & brutal act.  I gammed with him till about midnight, when we manned our boat & pulled our mate & the “Sea Queens” 2nd mate aboard the Sea Queen, a handsome trim little bark, but with no very good reputation among the fleet.  We found her decks silent & with only a boatsteerer & 3 foreign hands on deck, the forecastle dark, the decks quietly contrasting with the merry forecastle of the old Chili.  They have prayers every morning aboard this barke, her skipper officiating as chaplain.  No noise of singing or dancing or music is allowed, no loud conversation permitted.  The crew are debarred almost every resource a sailor has to relieve the monotony & tedium of a voyage; in fine she is an example of the austerity, not the sweetness & beauty of religion, applied to the sailor.  She is out over 8 months, but her skipper had not gone into port from the very natural fear that his crew would desert him, & she has taken but 80 bbls.  She has lost several of her spars & sails during the voyage from heavy storms, & was obliged to put back when first out disabled with her bulwarks stove in.  We staid aboard some 15 minutes, Frank P. & I wandering about & inspecting her neat rigging & decks, when we pulled aboard our own snug & homelike craft, & found two boats crews down in the forecastle.  I met here a young fellow who had been a book keeper in Chandlers in B.  He had been out here 8 years, but rum was his curse.  I gave him two of my books.  He was bound home as soon as he could get a ship homeward bound; or rather would stick to the Chili till she returned, for if he left her, he would get drunk & be shipped on some cruser.  He was very anxious to see me, & was disappointed when he found I had gone gamming.  I saw him but a few minutes when I returned, but hope to see him again, as we shall gamm the Chili again before long.  He is now a boatsteerer, has kept a boarding house on the coast, but rum broke him & the boarding house together.  The sight of my Shakespeare delighted him.  He used to frequent the theatre, & still remembered some fine old Boston actors — Booth & Mrs Mowat & Miss Cashman & others, most of whom are now dead or retired. 

Monday June 20th 1859. 

Have been for six days under all sail, all topsails & topgallant sails, night & day, heading to leeward, bound for the off shore grounds off  Cape St Francisco or Port Galena.  Mate & all hands think we are bound for Paita.  Mate ttold he boatsteerers to get their letters ready, but going down into cabin this morning to get some tobacco from Mrs Wilson, she took down a chart & showed me where we were bound — a secret to be kept from all hands.  So ho for warm weather!  Nothing can be finer than the weather we now have — full moon light & starry nights, northern cons[t]ellations rising higher every night & looking down on me with their holy & familiar eyes; fine sunny days & a gentle wind that just fills our canvass & steadies the old barke on the long swells.  Have not seen a single sperm whale since we have been on the Archer ground, not even a blow or a breach, but plenty of finback.  Old Man thinks he can do better to leeward on his old ground.  Saturday it seemed that the whole whaling fleet were about us, 10 sails in sight, one close hauled on our lee bow about 4 miles off, and as we were steering a little large, we neared her about 5 P. M, when we expected a gamm, but to our surprise instead of hoisting her mainsail as is customary for the leeward ship among whalers, she set her fore topgallantsail & refused a gamm.  We had everything set & gradually drew ahead till by dark she was a point abaft our lee beam, & by morning she was out of sight astern.  Indeed there appear to be more whalers than whales on the Archer ground, & by going to leeward we may have the first chance at the whales on the off-shore ground.  The Archer ground was remarkably good last season, but so many ships are there now & so many bound there, that the chances for success will be very slim.  Saturday — our codfish day — was marked by a ludicrous scene.  We always have hot slush for sauce on our fish, but Thompson our silly cook refused to bring it forward till we furnished him a pot to bring it in.  This was refused, for we didnt want to have our pot all slush & grease; besides we thought, standing on our dignity, that it was the cooks business to furnish a po[r]t or dish, and so all hands refused to eat or turn out till the slush was forthcoming in proper style.  The Portugee dissenting got a pan of slush –& this afterwards proved to be Thompson’s allowance for all hands — & helped themselves, but we all sat growling, till Charley went aft & spoke to the Old Man about the matter.  The Old Man called out for Thompson to whom we dont even give the dignity & title of Doctor or Cook, & asked him what was the matter; & after hearing his story, that he had nothing to put the slush in, told him to bring the sauce forward for that day in the sauce pan & that he would give him something to put it in for the future.  We thought all was right & sat expecting our slush, but no slush came.  Suspecting what was the matter, I went to the galley & found that T had sent all the slush to the Portugee.  The Old Man hearing this called for all hands to come aft & questioned both parties; and after a ludicrous scene of “crimination & recrimination” between Charley & Thompson, the Old Man sent the watch below & said he would take care we had plenty of slush the next time we got any; & set the watch on deck to work, dinnerless, & slushless too.  So much for slush.  The officers all laughed at the idea of giving so much importance & character to slush, when we might have helped ourselves from the slush barrel by the forecastle.  Have nearly finished rattling down; mate putting fancy caps on ends of rigging & a very fancy mat on fore swifters.  Cap evidently thinks mate too fond of fancy work, for he ordered two battons of main swifters to be taken down & scraped after mate had had them painted.  Mate piqued at this, asked him if he would have all the battons scraped.  Old Man replied nonchalantly, no, that he guessed that would do.  However the mate is making everything very ship shape.  In fact I dont suppose the old craft ever looked so trim & fancy as she does now.  Old Man is a rough sailor, thinking more of what is serviceable than what is neat & shipshape, while the mate has a decided fancy for neat & handsome appearances.  I fancy the Old Man looks a little suspiciously on the mates attempts to flounce up the rugged old whaler. 

Thursday June 23 1859. 

Still heading to leeward, steering N. W. by N.  Fresh wind, sea rugged.  Yesterday heavy rain squalls frequent.  At mast head we got on topsail yards under the lee of the mast & eyes of the rigging whenever a heavy squall came down on us.  Mate making fancy beckets for some new water pails.  All hands conjecturing where we are bound.  Wash off now every morning when all hands are called.  Mate delighted to make us scrub.  We actually go over the quarter deck five or six times before he is satisfied, scrubbing till our backs ache, & repeating our scrubbing fore & aft till near breakfast time.  I finished a mat yesterday for Old Man to stand on when he gets out of bed, I suppose.  Made of canvass and manilla yarns. 

Sunday June 26th 1859. 

Still heading for leeward under whole topsails & foresail, heading W. & N.W.  Lon as I made it last night 96º.9´ Lat 8º.7´.  Very fresh wind & sea very rugged; rain squalls frequent & heavy, though sunny most of the time, and quite warm.  Plenty of finback to be seen, breaching & blowing in all directions, & thousands of flying fish skimming from wave to wave, their lateral fins wet with the salt spray glistening in the sun like crystal wings.  Man-o-war hawks sail about with long soaring flight high over head, while marlin spikes — or boatswains birds — a handsome white bird with a long point tail, fly about us, the companions of the boobie & the petrel.  Lowered in very heavy sea yesterday for black fish, but without success.  Called from dinner we lowered away, the fish just astern from the ship, that we had just close hauled with m. yard aback.  We took our paddles & followed the mate & second mate, & soon were among the fish that were breaching among the heavy white caps in fine style.  But though we were so near that each boatsteerer poised his crew for a dart; so near that you could almost have jumped onto one from the boat; yet just out of a long dart, they went down, one big fellow raising a hump like that of a sperm whale & dashing the water about as he raised his flukes before he sounded.  We lay too for them & soon saw them again to leeward, so taking our oars pulled for them, but with like success, the fish sounding just as we reached them.  & thus they baffled us for some time, till a furious squall of wind & rain beat down on us, wetting us to the skin, raising the sea yet higher, & nearly hiding the ship from sight.  From the ships deck we could tell that the sea was rugged, but in the boats we found the sea like a Cape Horn sea, high & breaking in long, dashing foam, that when close to the boat would fill her half full of water & knock her off & about as if it were a cork, catching our oar’s and nearly wrenching them from our hands; & one immense billow rooling & roaring & cresting into white & flashing spray, caught our boat under the quarter & lifting her up, nearly capsized her, jerking Tom’s oar from the rowlock & pitching oar & Tom head foremost on top of my head, stoving a crotch & wetting us again & again with a deluge of foam.  My oar caught in my pocket & ripped my dungarees down the leg.  Dutchman missed stroke & capsized.  Santa Anna clung on like black death, & the thin shell of a boat trashed down, as the wave foamed along to leeward, with a spank into the hollow left by the receding sea.  It was too rough to follow black fish, & seeing the other boats pulling for the ship, we followed them, & coming up with the 2nd mate raced with him to the ship, his boat though along side just clear of our strokes, yet sinking out of sight at times, & again appearing almost over our heads as the lofty seas tossed the boats towards heaven or sunk them in the hollow trough of the sea.  No boat save a whale boat would venture in such rugged water.  It was sport & exciting sport too, & though drenched, yet the fresh wind, the tumultuous sea, & the rollicking boat that rode the waves like a goonie, kept us unwearied in our long return pull to the ship.  Some cursed the black fish, some the weather, & Shanghai impiously damned the storm, & wished the next man who sung out for black fish would drop dead.  I thought it fun, though hazardous, & if fast to a fish it would have been positively dangerous.  We hoisted the boats in their order, & changing our clothes, returned to our dinners & our work.  Had a very pleasant time in after cabin last night talking with our skipper & wife & getting our longitude.  I cant describe the pleasure with which I hailed the “Dipper” ursor [sic] major as it lifted its familiar domestic stars in their ordered state for the first time above the northern horizon.  It seemed a herald from home, for the dear friends at home can gaze on him as I can now, recognizing the old constellation, the earliest known in childhood, & the best starry friend of manhood.  Not Aldebaran nor the blazing splendor of Orion’s belt nor the sweet influence of the Pleiades, nor any of the bright officious lamps of heaven is to me so dear, so memorable of home & home friends as this bright & beautiful constellation.  I have missed it for nearly eight months, consoled by the brilliant southern constellations — Crux Australis, the Magellan clouds, Fomalhout & the other bright courtiers that circle the queen of night as her southern court. 

Wednesday June 29th 1859. 

Close hauled under double reefs last night & close hauled today, consequently on crusing ground in about 97.00 W. Lon. & 4.50 Lat. south.  Sea rugged, but the most delightful weather, though a little warm below, bringing out immense cockroaches as large as mice, which causes our monkey Jack to play infinite tricks on poor Suny (?) his Portugee imp.  This reminds me that on the Chili I saw cockroaches running from all quarters of the forecastle after supper to the slop bucket where they met for a gamm & their grub.  They seemed to know their supper time, so simultaneous was their move towards the bucket.  The sea now seems to be crow[d]ed, packed with flying fish that start out from before the ship from either bow & glide away in graceful curving flight a ships length or two — or three — & their bodies & crystal like wings, glancing in the sun, plash back again into their natural element.  Not a moment passes while we are at the mast head without our seeing a flight of these beautiful fish starting out from before us with a rushing splashing sound like a flight of small rocketsHave seen no sp. whales since we left Masafuera. 

Tuesday July 5th 1859. 

For last week weather been very bad – cloudy, squally & heavy rain squalls very frequent, sea rugged.  No sails seen, alone we are crusing far from land with nothing for company but lowering skies, angry white seas, and occasionally the sun, moon & familiar stars.  Saw a sail yesterday in the distance, just the gleam of white canvass a little above the horizon.  Old Man cracked on sail to overhaul her, anxious to gamm and inquire about whaling prospects, but she gradually drew out of sight & at length sank behind the swelling horizon & left us again alone.  Have seen no sp. whales, only plenty of fin backs that are continually deceiving us into the belief that they are sperm whales.  Yesterday “the 4th” we worked as usual, but had half a mince pie apiece for dinner & plenty of plum sugar gingerbread for supper, while an a la mode beef pie regaled the officers aft.  Still we had a merry time over our pie & gingerbread, the Portugee tasting their share bit by bit & saving the pie as if it had been the richest confectionary.  After supper all hands sitting on windlass & fore hatch, with bones, accordion, tin horn, bread pan — this last almost beaten by the drumsticks into a kocked hat, & two marlin spikes for a triangle — these for music; sung various nautical, sentimental & patriotic songs, to which even the steward lent his trembling but well cultivated voice, & the not unmusical echoes rang through the starlit night, while the new moon lifting her serene horns midway in her starry course, now & then dimmed by a vagrant cloud, shed her calm beauty on the ocean and on our lonely bark that lay close hauled under double reefs & foresail, heeling & pitching on the long seas.  I sat in the cool breeze, musing on home festivities, soothed by my pipe, till at length I procured the Old Man’s quadrant & practised getting angular distances between the moon & a star, till the decks were silent, almost deserted, the music hushed, the deck lanterns hung up under the house, the look out stationed, & the old Atkins Adams at her regular night work, boatsteerers & the watch stowed away about deck, when I turned in, lying on a bare chest with a simple pillow under my head, & thus ended my 4th of July for 1859. 

Friday July 8th 1859. 

Nine months out today, weather the same — quite bad, though warm, so much so that I seldom turn in to my bunk but sleep on a bare chest.  Yesterday P. M at mast head with Johnny Come Lately — whom we now call Jack Marlin Spike from his dropping a marlin spike from aloft & which narrowly missed Shanghai’s head, greatly to the terror of that timid lubber.  We saw five fin backs spouting & singing out together, the whales blowing quite regularly for a few minutes.  We brot the Old Man aloft with his spy glass, & soon after Jack sung out: “Thar she blows” in which I joined, but before our long shout was fairly hushed, “Sail ho” came from the main mast, & we were disconcerted to find that we had mistaken a sail for a breach.  Far away on the horizon white canvass, the lofty sails of a ship, was seen rising & sinking behind the waving line where the waters met the sky.  Our Old Man cracked on sail & luffed two points, & under all topsails, m. t. gsl & flying jib, we headed for the strange sail, & about 5 P. M she came, on the opposite tack, down & lay too with main yard aback, while we crossed her stern, making her out the Rose Pool of Edgartown, out 30 months, 1000 right & sp oil.  We both luffed to wind & with m. yds aback lay about an eighth of a mile apart, mutually pitching on the long seas, when Cap Fisher came aboard & greeted our skipper who was walking the weather side, pacing up & down & none but skippers can, for mate returned with a crew from our ship.  We found the R. P. an old merchant barke altered into a whaler, her boats painted very fancifully — blue bottoms, white or yellow sides, black ribands & red bows, looking too gaudy & fantastic for such oily business as they were prepared for.  The barke herself rigged in merchant style, with cabin on deck & her hold flush fore & aft, boasted a forecastle the dingiest, blackest, foulest hole I have ever seen, lighted by day only from a feeble timid lamp that swung dripping with oil from the bit just foreward of the steps, making gloomier the black, grimy beams & bunk boards & adding its smoke to the stench that pervaded every corner of the ill ventilated & close forecastle; which at night was cheered a little by the different lamps that depended from the bunks or were stuck into the bunk stanchions.  Old canvass patched & torn served for curtains; the floor was sloppy, the chests huddled together, & the men sitting on them of a hue corresponding to the color of their home.  We mistook them for Portugee at first, but most of them were originally white & spoke English correctly enough to assure us that they were indeed Americans, though seen by the yellow light, they certainly belied their native complexions.  We passed — to me — a rather dismal time, for drawling songs was our only amusement, but Tom was in his element, & went through with great spirit & commendable perseverance his long list of comic & sentimental songs, bawled out with variations of his irish wit in his nasal, brassy voice.  Thus we spent the evening till late, when we returned to our own ship & were glad enough to turn in.  The ship was in sight all night & today is quite near & as the Old Man is breaking out some cloth, I anticipated a gamm today.  I was amused to see her second mate quietly haul her main yard aback himself last night when nearing our own ship, without disturbing any of his watch.  They spoke of him as a fine officer.  Her try works were all blackened & smooky, the bricks bare & loose, the machine covered with an old tarpaulin & lashed to the iron stanchions, her galley a little house close to forecastle, & her whole appearance very dirty & unseamanlike. They had taken two small whales of the Gallipagoas two weeks since making about 60 bbls., & report plenty of ships crusing there, but had seen no whales on this ground.  We had the usual amount of growling from those of our crew who were’nt smart enough to jump into the boat when our mate sung out for a crew.  We turned in for two or 3 hours, our boat having morning watch below, & after resting uneasily on chests in our sweltering forecastle for about two hours we turned out, all save Dutchman who, though awakened by half a dozen fellows, refused to turn out, but went to sleep again.  As this was a common trick with him, after sleeping on deck for about an hour, I resolved to go below for a little while, thinking I had as much right as Dutchman to take a nap there.  I hadnt been there more than ten minutes when — awake — I heard the boatsteerers rattling ropes on deck.  When I went on deck, & hearing that they were about to tack ship, I was just going aft, when the 3rd mate coming forward sung out to me “Go aft then” & immediately afterwards caught me by the throat collar & hissed out to me a torrent of brutal passionate & profane language, threatening me in the angriest terms, & finally bidding me go aft to the braces.  I walked silently aft to my station in disgust at such treatment, when the 3rd mate sung out “Where’s Adam?”  Being told that he was asleep in his bunk he ordered Tom to call him, & walking up & down the deck, cried out petulantly “Now I’ve got to wait for him I suppose,” muttering like a vexed child.  Soon Adam came aft when the 3rd mate sung out to him “Where the devil have you been?” “In my bunk, sir” & instead of collaring him he only said “Well we’ve been waiting for you haul up the spanker,” & we wore ship as usual.  Adam deserved more twice over than I any punishment that the 3rd mate in his importance might give, but Adam though he has repeatedly been guilty of lying in his bunk, sometimes an entire watch, has always escaped with a few words.  I was to blame for going below, but then we were under reduced sail, close hauled, & had besides been gamming half the night, & any decent man would have made allowance for this, but Mr G, though he gave at first promise of being a good officer, has lately been growing violent & coarse & unfeeling in his treatment of the men, hoisting men for his own amusement, burning them with hot pokers & displaying a brutal nature that I didnt think he possessed.  But this is his education, an education in the worst impulses of his nature.  In all the ships we have gammed, the watch are allowed to go below when close hauled under shortened sail.  We are crusing in the trades, with no chance for a gale, & under such circumstances — when an officer sleeps himself on the booby hatch or in the round house — he should have some consideration for the foremast hands who have no such shelter on deck.  I think Mr G’s treatment of me unfair & unmanly in the last degree. 

Monday July 11th 1859. 

Longitude 104.37, Lat 4.15 south.  I have thought at various times of describing some of the characters aboard ship, but in truth there are no characters that present any very remarkable features, except perhaps Happy Jack & Johnny Marlinspike.  This last is a thorough sailor in feeling & habits — so is Happy Jack — but Johnny is the merriest chap alive, hardly for a moment forgetting to play some fantastic trick, or make some ludicrously foolish speech, while Happy Jack laughs at everything & seldom says anything himself.  Both can growl in good strong language when the grub or the mate dont please them; & both when in port would sell even the shirt off their backs for rum.  Happy Jack takes anything he wants, no matter from whom, & makes the weakest possible excuses to the owner when caught:  “I couldnt help it”, “I had’nt any myself”, “You would’nt refuse a poor fellow that would you”, & with a laugh he disarms all resentment.  He turns in and sleeps during all his watch below day or night; has a very knowing look & makes most sagacious remarks about the weather & whales; & dreams most phophitic dreams.  But though about as correct as an old almanac, yet he always explains away his mistaken prop<h>ecies by the aid of some superstitious omen or some unlucky event.  He is firmly convinced that we shall take no whales this cruse & goes to the mast head with the air of a martyr & shakes his head knowingly when “thar blows” is sung out.  A more indifferent, careless, reckless, superstitious, good for nothing happy wretch doesnt like [sic] than Poor Happy Jack.  Light fingered, good natured, laughing, singing Happy, a glass of rum seized by thee with trembling & eager hands & drunk ravenously as by a parched & very worn traveller transforms thee from a light hearted Jack to a sorry drunkard; & thou drinkest long draughts of fiery liquor that blazes in thy eye & makes haggard thy look, gives to thy cheery voice a piteous moan as thou beggest of any friend a drink; or changes thee at times from the best natured to the sullenest ill tempered of companions.  Poor Happy was drunk the moment he touched liquor when in port & kept drunk night & day till after we had left.  While Johnny perpetually drinking & treating all hands & pawning his outfits for the strong anicou that was smuggled off to the ship by the adroit Chillalians under the very eye of the mate, was dancing about & keeping all hands merry by his monkey actions.  Happy would sit maudlin on a chest drinking when the bottle was passed round, with a shaking hand & quivering lip, taking up the first thing he came across to exchange for rum, & saying he didn’t know what it was; or whose it was when detected; or that he would make it all right, & adding as an undeniable excuse that he was not drunk but a little startedThus he took my shawl, which I havent yet obtained, & confessed he took it, when drunk, “for fear” he said “that some of those Chillalians might see it, you know, & steal it, so I thought I’d take it & keep it for you.”  Thus he sold one of Johnny’s flannel shirts, & said he thought it was his own, a loss that Johnny bore very good naturedly, thinking it rather a fine joke.  Johnny himself is now on the sullen list.  Thinking himself ill treated by the mate, & jealous that some of the greenhands are prefered to him by the partial mate, he swears he wont do any fancy work aboard this old blubber tub; that he shipped as a green hand & will do nothing but green hand’s work.  So he sogers, & consequently gets round damnings from the mate, who told him the other night that he wasn’t fit to splice a rope yarn saying: “Damn such a man.  Damn a man that you must watch all the time,” and elevating his eternal crooked left arm harangued him for full ten minutes, while Jack hands in pockets listened with a sour defiant face, & at last came foreward cursing the mate & damning himself.  In reality he is a good sailor, an able seaman, but notional as an old salt he pretends in his spite awkwardness & ignorance & purposely does bungling work.  Yet to shipmates a better tempered fellow does not live.  I have learned a great deal from him.  From beneath a red velvet cap stuck on the back & side of his head — where it is in perpetual danger of a fall — Jacks (for we call Johnny & Happy both Jack) Jacks rugged weather-beaten, tanned face, with round eyes full of a comical sly light, & a mouth always on a grin, dis[c]losing tobacco stained ivories & a port hole as he calls it where one of his teeth has been knocked out, & through which as a convenient port hole he spurts his tobacco juice; from beneath this cap this face looms out, while beneath, supporting his conical head, is a bone neck & breast, hairy & brown, the upper timbers to a stout hull of a body that boast a pair of arms all covered with India ink tattoeings — the figure of American Liberty; Christ on the cross; an American Tar holding a star spangled banner in one hand & a coil of rope in the other; a fancy girl; & anchors, rings, crosses, knots, stars all over his wrists & hands, the memorials of different ports he has visited.  For Jack has been in all kinds of vessels from a man of war to a blubber hunter, & has consequently been to many ports.  An old shirt wide open in front with the sleeves rooled up, covers Jacks stout hull, while an old pair of breeches supported by a belt, quilted & patched  — unlike the old Constitution they have very little of the original timber left — encase Jacks legs.  And such legs shurely never before did dungarees or duck grace.  Jacks upper works seem to heavy for his lower, for his legs are spread like two bat (?) stays with a spreader between & Jack goes rooling about as if he carried all his ballast in his head; while his feet are like hands, large & awkwardly pointing towards each other.  But for all this Jack is not an unhandsome fellow; with a blue shirt & tight pants he looks a neat, tight, sailor, & from his own accounts has done no little damage among the girls he left behind him. 

Tuesday July 12th 1859. 

An immense school of dolphins surrounded the ship last night & by moonlight with the granes[3]& lines we caught a number of these most beautiful fishes.  This morning from deck & from mast head they could be seen in every direction in pursuit of flying fish breaching wholly out of water, their lovely colors glistening in the morning sun.  In their eagerness 5 or 6 would rush for one fish as it plashed into the sea, & butting against each other would wholly miss their game, their tails & the burnished golden mail of their bodies waving in hues to lovely for discription.  We had a fine chowder for dinner, the best mess we have yet had.  In general the fish we take are strong & a little rank to the taste, but when cooked properly, the dolphin is good eating. 

Thursday July 14th. 

Very bad weather, blowing half a gale, sea high & rugged.  Under double reefs.  Four very large dolphins followed the ship for some time yesterday breaching occasionally, breaching wholly out of water in graceful curves & turning on their sides before they reached the water again, displaying such blended beauties that I have no words adequate to description.  As they swim in the sea their tails are are of a flashing golden hue; their backs deep green or purple or blue; their pectoral fins near the head of a burnished copper color; their bellies shading from white to golden & azure & blue; while added to these beauties their graceful movements full of easy strength, their quick dashes at flying fish among whom they dart savagely, a curious & exciting scene, as the dolphins spring among their prey, following them even in the air & snapping them up as a trout catches at a fly; their sportive play about our bows, all these make the dolphin incomparably the handsomest fish that swims.  Confounded by most poets with the porpoise, the dolphin has been the subject of many beautiful comparisons & figures from ancient to modern times.  We struck one with the granes, nearly as large as a porpoise, but he broke loose, so heavy was he.  With blood pouring from his wounds he darted away, for his companions made a simultaneous dash for him as he broke loose from the granes, for they tell me that a wounded dolphin is attacked & devoured by his companions.  The large the dolphin, the handsomer.  The water in the Scuttle butt is brackish & foul.  The butt foolishly placed by the Old Man in the galley, where the water gets heated, is the favorite home of all the young cockroaches who frequent the galley & who, getting into the water, drown there & cover the surface with their dead bodies; & as these vermin have a bad habit of soon rotting when dead & resolving themselves into exceedingly small constituent parts which float throughout the water giving it a muddy appearance & a sensible odor, they soon manage to taint the water, making it for me unpalatable save when disguised by the fragrant herb or berry, i.e., made into tea or coffee.  But I am gradually getting hardened, my taste getting blunted or rather expanded, & my delicacy changing into coarse relishes, for I not only sleep among cockroaches, but can even swally a small & tender fellow without making a face, provided I have a little water or molasses to smooth the victims passage to the tomb.

Sunday July 17th 1859. 

Blowing hard, the ship under double reefs, but heeling aport on starboard tack, so that her rail is sometimes level with the sea, & pitching her head under, while a high & overgrown sea occasionally breaches over the foreward part of the ship; & added to this frequent heavy squalls of rain & wind makes everything uncomfortable to the last degree.  Mast heads disagreeable & to us foremast hands in our opinion a little dangerous, as the f. l. g. mast is weather cracked, & the back stays are rotten, one of them having parted when they were last set up.  It would be next to impossible to cut in in such weather, but we have’nt seen any sign of a sp whale for over two months.  Poor Happy is down sick, and neither he or the Cap can tell what is the matter with him, but thinks it is the gravel.  So poor Jack lies all day long in his bunk solacing himself with his everlasting pipe.  I dread a blubbering scene while in such weather, indeed in any weather.  To turn out at midnight & put on clothes soaked in raw oil; to go on deck & work for eighteen hours among blubber, slipping & stumbling on the sloppy decks till you are covered from crown to heel with oil; eating with oily hands oily grub, drinking from oily pots till your mouth & lips have a nauseating oily taste; turning in for a few hours sleep — after wiping off your bare body with oakum to take of the thickest of the oil & then to dream you are under piles of blubber that are heaping & falling upon you till you wake up with a suffocating sense of fear & agony only to hear the eternal clank of the cutting machine & the roar of the fires under try works, or the wind dismally howling through the rigging to fall asleep only to dream again till you are called on deck to lean off the raw blubber, to handle the greasy pikes & gaffs or deck tubs, to lipper down the bloody & oily deck with stinking pieces of white horse; to be ordered about by boatsteerers & damned by the mates, to weigh dirty casks, to clean off the decks, rails & try works, scrubbing for hours with broom & sand & old canvass; to stand under the lee of the try works, cutting up & carrying to casks the soaked & dripping case, till your eyes smart with pain & your mouth is filled with the suffocating black smoke from the chimneys that rools out in thick wreathing volumes; to slip in pools of raw oil, to handle hot scraps or bail the boiling oil that splutters & splatters on your face & hands till they burn; to be weary, dirty, oily, sleepy, sick, disgusted with your self & everybody & everything; to go through such a scene when the old blubber tub is pitching & rooling, & the rain adds its horror to the scene, wetting your oil soaked clothes till they cling to your oil greasy skin, & the wind blows chilly on your shivering flesh & through your matted oily hair; to go through such a scene for a week at a time & have at length a brief respite, just long enough to clean your self and get a little sleep & recover from your fatigue, only to begin your nasty work afresh & stand down in the dirtiest of holds handling heavy casks that threaten every moment in rough weather to fetch away and break your legs if not your neck, & finally clean off again rail & deck & stanchion & rigging & mast & yourselves; to go through such a scene I confess the very thought turns my stomach & dizzies my head.  Yet I am not foolish enough to wish this valuable ship to lie idle.  I hope she will do well, but leave her I must at the next port.  We now scrub off every morning before breakfast, & nothing but a blubbering scene can exceed this in its disagreeable nature.  We get on well enough till we come to the qua[r]ter deck, where our work begins in earnest.  The mate cocks his long body on the sky light, & perched like Dicken’s Quilp on the after bit with knees drawn up & his grizzled shaggy beard stuck out beneath his little ferret eyes like a long legged monkey sitting on a dead stump, & watches every motion of the poor fellows who scrub & scrub & scrub — fore & aft & athwart ship’s — till their backs ache & the brooms wag to & fro lazily, while the boatsteererss waiting with buckets of water lean against the rails & watch our motions with grinning sarcastic faces, till our time is up.  For we scrub by time & not according to the clean or dirty nature of the deck, for the deck itself is rarely dirty at all, when we wash off & we put up our brooms.  Thus we pass away an hour or more every morning, & more mechanical work is never seen; & more sogering on the brooms could’nt be, for we get restive when we know that the mate keeps us at such work merely to pass away time & enjoys our growling & our work.  Every other Saturday we wash off the whole ship — rails, deck & everything — working for about two hours with sand & water, while our breakfast cools for us, & our patience also gets cold, while our tempers get hot.  Such scrubbing & such cleaning I think useless:  as much can be done with one quarter the labor. 

Tuesday July 19th 1859. 

Heavy weather, still continuing with high & long sea.  A second time one of the screws to the starboard main fultock (?) staffs’ dropped out, & the mate had great difficulty to screw in again as the threads were so worn that they wouldnt bite, but by winding twine around the screw he managed to make it hold, but a slight strain would again loosen it.  The after staff next this one troubled us in the same manner off the Horn.  The mate says the ship isnt half rigged, & that he wouldnt care if this negligence about the screws should cost the owners 5 or 6 hundred dollars by the loss of the topmast, as a lesson to them.  A little expense & trouble would have made the staffs secure & strong.  As it is they are weak & endanger the safety of the topmast. 

Wednesday July 20th 1859. 

Bad weather still continuing, squally, but not blowing so hard, pleasant yesterday.  Pieces of squid are occasionally seen now at the mast head floating by the ship.  Dolphins & pilot fish breach on them and tear away on them, apparently very fond of such food.  Struck two large dolphins night before last.  These fish now constantly attend the ship, swimming on either bow or just ahead.  Shovel nose sharks seen.  But we have lost all our birds.  I suppose the weather is too rainy or else we are too far from land, for we have seen no boobies or manowar hawks or Jack Marlinspikes for a long time, though occasionally a flock of sp. whale birds will appear in the distance.  Plenty of large fin backs but no sign of a sp. whale.  I must say that we now lead a lazy life.  Called at day light we scrub off decks till about 8.40 when we generally wear ship & then do nothing till breakfast time, and during the day the watches on deck are busy about some trifling work, making sennet or splicing yarns or some such easy occupations; or we wash our clothes or sew when not at the wheel or mast head.  The officers are at present rigging gaff topsails & jibs for their boats, the bow boat having a dungaree jib to distinguish it from the others.  We break out a barrel of pork or beef now & then, or fill the scuttle butt with water.  We furl the mainsail every night & in tolerable weather reef topsails after supper.  Our life is unmistakably easy, very tediously so, always excepting the mast heads, which in bad weather are extremely disagreeable.  We are wandering over this barren ground unvisited by any ship, far from land, uncheered by any sail, our only companions being lowering skies & an angry sea, and alone in our solitude.

Saturday July 23rd. 

Bad weather continuing, though occasionally pleasant & sunny.  Had a long talk with second mate in steerage about navigation & comparative merits of whaling & merchant vessels.  He prefers whaling service because it is easier, because there is more sailoring, because he can make more money, & on the whole because he thinks his prospects warrant better success in that service than in the merchant service.  In many respects I disagree with him.  It is evident to me that a whaler is a sailor from necessity, not because a genuine enthusiasm impels him to make the sea his home, his theatre for action, his nourishment & his joy, but because it is rather difficult to take whales by any other means.  He is by education & second nature a hunter of the gigantic game of the ocean.  Every other accomplishment bends & is subsidiary to this paramount object.  He is cooper & blacksmith & carpenter & general mechanic just as he is a sailor, simply because it is indispensable that he should be.  His instincts lie in oil.  These narrow arts serve but to assist.  They are not the pride of the whaler.  His eye kindles & his whole nature is alive at the prospect of blubber, but he rather smiles at deep enthusiasm for scientific seamanship.  It is enough that he can bring his ship to the haunts of whales & keep her there.  He will take command of an old hulk, provided she will last the voyage, with as much alacrity {and many with even more} as if she were a new and noble vessel.  He sails with a complement of green hands, and takes pride in turning them into good whalers.  In fine he is a hunter & butcher & oil manufacturer, & often a good sailor too, but this last is a secondary taste & profession.  Beyond a doubt he is a fearless seaman, penetrating among the tumbling mountains of ice in the blustery outrageous northern seas; or under the frozen serpent of the South; or he vexes with his keel the milder waters of the Indian or Pacific oceans.  Geography & Empire honor him among their best contributors.  But it is no love of fame, no ambition of honor, no desire to assist science or increase knowledge, to make discoveries or carry his country’s flag to unknown shores that makes him a hardy navigator & a bold discoverer.  It is the pursuit of oil & the chase of his tremendous prey.  It is the interests of owners, of himself & crew, not the interests of mankind that urge his keel among unknown seas & amid unusual dangers.  Beyond example he is courageous & persevering & succesfull.  This much he desires.  But to add to this, & say that he excells in what is planely to him an inferior motive, is to give him more than his due & discredit the superb seamanship of our merchant sailors, who have justly gained the applause of the whole world.  Mr M is a smart man & a good seaman, but he himself thinks more of whaling than he does of whaling sailing.  He advises me to keep clear of merchantmen because his own experience in “black ballers’ has been somewhat rude & severe. 

Tuesday July 26th 1859. 

Rough weather still continuing.  We stand N. E tacks most of the time, as there is a strong current setting to westward.  Lat 5.08 south Lon 104.00 west.  All agree that we are on the ground too early, as the season is in September & October.  So alone we still cruse without a sign of a sperm whale & uncheered by any sails.  Saw one a long way off, but she soon passed out of sight having royals & stun sails set.  She was probably a merchantman.  Now making thumbline mats for sheer poles, weaving with a harness board.  A more economical mat cant be imagined, made as it is out of fragments & pieces of yarns.  The mate evidently knows how to manage well & keep us dooing something, though our work is of the lightest & easiest description.  The after fore hatch is now kept off day & night to air the potatoes, & notwithstanding superstitious notions about ghosts in the holds of vessels, seen by the awe struck sailor at night with gliding noiseless tread, & robed in sheeny white, I sleep in the forehold every night watch & keep clear from wind & water.  Cap came down into forecastle to inquire about the beds of the runaways, but no one knew anything about them.  “Well,” said the Cap, “never mind, if you want to wear five dollar patches on your sterns, you can for all I care,” & pointing to one or two who had patched their breeches with bed ticking.  One of the beds has been cut up I think & the other two are used by the Portugee.  These Portugee are the greatest talkers I ever heard, jabbering night & day.  What they can find to talk about I cant imagine, but every night they get together & talk & talk & talk, keeping us awake & angry too.  We cry “Kalabuk, Kalabuk” then.  Turn in, go to sleep, but their noisy chatter keeps on till the lights are blown out when they finally become quiet.  We all make beer & vinegar out of molasses & water & raw potatoes in kegs & bottles.  The Old Man has already spoken about our using so much water, but every meal time a dozen or more pots of water are drawn from the scuttle butt for beer or swankie.  I notice with pleasure that the Old Man pays more attention to the mate than he did for the first seven months.  His jealous dislike is wearing off, & now every morning after reducing sail they walk the quarter deck, the Old Man to windward & mate to leeward of booby hatch, & the Old Man tells yarn after yarn, to which the mate listens respectfully & laughs heartily at any joke, evidently aiming at pleasing the Old Man & establishing a frank & hearty feeling between them.  This is much better than the old dislike & suspicious mistrust — that was evident to all — the Cap entertained against his first officer.

Wednesday July 27th 1859. 

Very pleasant & sunny day.  Had some good beer in steerage made by Johnny & Manuel.  Been working on thumb line mat, most of the foremast hands sitting down in sunny places on deck & gamming & leasurly laying up thumb line.  Still alone, our solitary ship is crusing slowly about, absolutely profitless.  Stories are told by the old whalers of ships crusing for 10 months & even 18 months without seeing a blow.  And we go to the mast heads & look out over the barren sea without excitement or hope, for the waste of waters still heaves restlessly, the constant winds blow their unvarying gales, the old barke nods day & night to the same blue waves, her sides — chafed by the whales we took so long since — getting green with long grass that clings to her planks in long dripping sea green hair that dabbles& plays with the salt ooze, its nourishing mother.  Nothing to break our changeless life, but the same round of dull duties day & night & thus we cruse, vainly waiting to plunder these unprofitable seas.  Yet these mast heads are very pleasant when the weather is good.  For myself I may say that I love to stand at my lofty station & watch the blue curling sea while the fresh untainted gales blow their pure breath in my face & fan me with their cooling airs.  Then is the season for thought & fancy.  The lofty heights, the wind that singeth its sea song merrily on pleasant days striking from the rigging its cheering notes as from “that strange harp, whose strings "The Genii of the breezes sweep,” the ridged & circling seas flecked by tints from sky & cloud & always murmuring accord to the musical winds, itself a continual wonder, to me a fountain of fancy, the blue pastures of its innumerous tribes with its caves & grots & labyrinths of coral beauty, with its measureless space & immortal life — such sights & such sounds & such fancys — while the barkes hull below me dwarfed in comparison with the spread of the sails & rigging heels a lee, so that I stand as on a leaning tower, high over the sea itself & can feel the mast beneath me bend as the ship plunges heavily.  Such feelings intellectual, broken by the momentary excitement of seeing a whiff of spray shooting from the sea, & then another & another, or a black body rising & falling with a curving plunge into white foam; and the ringing crys “Thar blows,” Thar she breaches” startle all hands below till pausing from their works each man listens for those regular crys that proclaim a sperm whale in sight; & turns disappointed to his work again as these crys become irregular & finally cease, indicating only a worthless finback or perhaps a sulphur bottom; or as I watch the gaudy dolphin or the bended porpoise, gracefullest of the whale family, or the dapper flying fish imitating with momentary flight the bold, confident poise of the albatross or boobie, soaring sailing with sublime dominion through the azure depths of air.  All these sights & sounds & imaginations invest the mast head with the pleasantest of duties, provided only it be calm weather.  And bad weather has sometimes grand or beautiful scenes — rainbows, the sun shining mistily through plashing rain squalls, great shadows hurrying over the sea, waves whitening in curled foam before a sudden blast seen at a distance furiously driving before it cloud & rain & spray, or the great sun rising or setting casting his severe glories on the dun storm rack.  From the mast head alone can you see & appreciate all the authentic majesty’s of the ocean.  I saw the other day a vast black cloud arching the horizon, each end pillowed on thick slanting rain & almost mingling with the dark waves beneath.  & so it swept down on us & over us & as if a curtain had been drawn up from a picture or a long stage, I could see beyond under the cloudy arch bright skies & a golden sea & a setting sun.  The columns of rain passed ahead & astern, while the cloud overhead swept its great bow & shadow without shedding a drop, over us & to leeward.  So much for masthead. 

Friday July 29th 1859.  

Having laid my knife on my chest one day I fell asleep beside it &, on waking, found it gone.  I suspected Happy Jack, but said nothing till last night.  Several knives have disappeared as misteriously as my own, but last night while all hands were at supper, I spoke out in a loud voice:  “I know who has got my knife.  If the man who has it will quietly give it to me, I will say nothing.  But if he wont, I must go to the Old Man.”  I watched Happy after saying this, & was convinced he was the thief, for he nervously tried to conceal his agitation & said without any cause:  “If you think I’ve got your knife, you can come & find it,” & made so many remarks about the matter that I wasn’t surprised at what followed.  Every one asked me who was the thief, but I only replied that I wouldnt tell, but waited for the man himself to come forward, quietly if he chose.  I then went on deck, & in a little while Happy called to me, & after a little talk, said he had the knife, & then handed it to me, with the most ridiculous story to account for its possession. “Every one suspecting him” he said — when no one did but myself — “he went to his chest & found it stowed away in a corner,” but how it came there — he swore his biggest oaths — he didnt know; that he never took it or concealed it, & that some one put it there to throw suspicion on him.  Poor Happy, his ridiculously weak excuse only moved my pity.  He made so many profane protestations that I finally told him that I didnt care about the knife, & that I shouldnt think any more about the matter, & left him quieted & in his simplicity believing he had imposed his miserably weak excuse upon my credulity.  I would correct his error if I could do him any good, but Happy has cast off every stay of principle, & floats an absolutely rudderless & ungovernable wreck.  But the Dutchman too had a finger in the pie, for he confessed to me that he had taken the knife & hid it in his chest, & that Happy had in turn stolen it from him.  Queer proceedings these.  Nothing is safe that can be easily concealed.  The forecastle is by no means a moral place.  And the cabin dont fare much better, for last night the Old Man had the cabin boy seized to the main rigging a la spread eagle.  He had stolen & eaten some jelly, & the empty bottle with a spoon in it was found under the old womans bed.  The Old Man succeeded in frightening the little rascal half to death.  He asked the mate in a very sober way if he hadnt better throw Andrew overboard, & the mate as seriously replying that he thought that would be a good way to cure a strong propensity for sweet things, & especially jelly.  Poor Andrew thought his hour had come, & begged & cried in broken English:  “Oh capitain, no throwey me overboard, no throwey me overboard.  Me likey you, Capitain, me likey you.”  “I know damn well you like me,” replied the Old Man, and after threatening Andrew till he almost turned white, he had him seized to the main rigging by his wrists & left him there for an hour or two.  The Growler thought the Old Man was lashing up the cabin boy to flog him, & he began to damn the old woman as the cause of it; but I found out the true facts & showed him how unjust it was to accuse Mrs Wilson when she should be blamed praised, for she pleaded for Andrew & saved him a severer punishment.  Happy today is unconcerned as ever, with his eternal weak smile & open mouth & watery feeble blue eyes.  He actually asked me for some vinegar, so callous &  simple is light hearted Jack.  Cabin boy however is morose & sullen & hid himself in pantry till the steward thought he had jumped overboard till he was finally found curled up in a corner black & comfortless. 

Monday August 1st 1859. 

At last we are leaving this dismal ground to us a barren field, & under all sail are heading for the Gallipagos.  The season on the off shore ground is just approaching, & we wonder a little why the Old Man after stopping here two months should leave at the very time when he might expect oil.  I am glad of it, for we shall be in company soon, & probably see whales, too.  Moreover we shall be in good weather.  When asleep in fore hold this morning on a coil of old ropes — to me positively a more comfortable bed than my sweltering bunk — Mr G missed me & suspecting I was down in the forecastle, crept slyly down & finding Tom there half asleep as usual trying to light his pipe, took his lamp & searched for me, & finding out from Tom where I was — for Tom is my dragon — he let me sleep in peace till about day break, when he came to the hatch & sung out loud enough to waken all hands:  “Abbe.”  I started up with a jump thinking that the old gentleman was to pay, but he good naturedly added:  “Come turn out, it’s most day light, & it’s time to get on deck.”  I jumped on deck & found our black lookout Santa Anna & Tom grinning at the fun.  Have added Tom & Dutchman to my scholars, & now Tom is puzzling his irish pate over compound addition, & the Dutchman is getting a spelling lesson.  These matters take a good deal of my time.  To teach Manuel & Johnny in the steerage & then have two or three more lessons to hear in the forecastle gives me but little time for writing & reading & study.  Tom a bright fellow naturally, has just lost his slate pencil in a dozing fit, & has waked up to find it, for I told him not to turn in till he had finished his sums, & the good natured honest fellow sits nodding over his slate in the most comical of attitudes, scratching & erasing strange characters on his slate.  While Dutchman “a la naturel” one big leg hanging over the bunk board, lies in his bunk with his short pipe between his lips & spelling book in hand studying a lesson I sent him to restudy.  And as I look at Tom again I see him fast asleep, his pencil pausing in the act of marking a figure & the arithmetic hanging from his slack hand.  Watch on deck patching spare f. t. sl.  Poor Toms heavy eyelids open again slowly, and his sleepy eyes blear at his slate, but dazzled by the intricate sum they close again, & his head nods half way to the chest on which his bent & sluggish form is leaning.  “Turn in, turn in, Tom” I cry, but Tom’s spirit wakes up & he swears he wont turn in till he finishes the sum, & sure enough, he has just handed me the sum finished & correct.  Tom says he was only thinking when I thought him asleep.

Tuesday August 2nd 1859.  

A lovely day, sea quite smooth, but with a long swell from eastward & a gentle breeze that just swells our spreading canvass.  We seem already to be out of the strength of the trades in which for so long we have been crusing, attended by squall & rain & rugged seas.  Johnny tells me we are bound for Paita to get letters.  I hope this is true, for I am anxious to hear from the dear friends at home.  Kept under all sail all last night when Mr G commenced again to keep us busy parceling a rope here & a rope there every few minutes, slacking off the weather fore brace, & then rousing our watch to haul it taught again.  Mr Miller is just the opposite, never disturbing his watch, except to perform some necessary work.  Been sailorizing on staysail & jib pendants & fore lifts, mending service & retarring. 

Thursday August 4th 

Beautiful weather, but last night rainy.  However I slept down in fore hold.  All sail, even fore top gallant sail, carried night and day.  Been reading from my journal to the members of my watch who, to my delight, approve it, & Johnny the boatsteerer said he could keep awake all night listening to me; & Curly tells me to have it printed when I get home.  Yesterday set up f. l. g. back stays while men were at f. t. g masthead, nearly jerking them off, as one of the straps parted. My enthusiasm about mast heads which I described a few leaves back was decidedly dashed by the mate yesterday.  I was at the mast head & being relieved, was just turning to go down when the mate sung out from the main top gallant mast head, at which he was standing:  “Abbe.”  I turned aft, when he continued:  “tell old Blackler when you get home that you aint worth a damn to look out for whales.”  I was perfectly astonished, for I had kept an extra lookout that afternoon, & had thought how pleasant it would be for me to raise a whale, & had kept my eye sweeping the sea in every direction except astern.  Angry enough I went down & as soon as the mate came from aloft, I went up to him & told him he was mistaken, that I had kept a bright look out & that his speech was unjust & unfair.  The mate answered that I had leant on the royal yard without moving & he thought I was looking down, but on being assured that I had not looked down at all, he said he was glad, that he meant to speak to any man when he saw him neglecting his duty; that it was time we took a whale; and that we couldnt take one unless we first saw him; that he came for dollars & cents, nothing else — not for pleasure or education, or health — but for oil.  I answered all this by saying I was as anxious to get a whale as he was, & that he must not think that because I didnt intend to complete the voyage I didnt mean to do my duty.  We talked for quite a while, the mate as usual loud & making great sweeps with his long arm, & I respectful but bold vindicating myself.  The mate at last became pleasant & appeared sorry that he had said what he had, & gave me some sailoring to do.  On the whole it was a little comical, & though my attitude deceived the mate, yet frequently I become engaged in thought, get abstracted, & forgetting whales, think of home & past scenes.  It is sometimes fatiguing to stand for two hours or more on the narrow crosstrees while the ship pitches heavily & heels a lee so that you must cling fast to prevent being jerked from the yard or the cross trees; to stand turning in every direction & strain your eyes over the broad unbroken circle of the sea, so fatiguing that occasionally lost in thought I stand gazing away in the distance as far as the sea heaveth, away towards my native land.  The practical mate evidently thinks the mastheads intended not for “thought & fancy” but for a bright look out after whales.  Though we stand on the N E. by E tack day & night and are nearing the line, yet the weather seems to get colder, though sea & wind are moderated.

Sunday August 7th 1859. 

Beautiful weather, sunny days & quiet seas, gentlest of gales, all sail set night and day.  Dead calm last night & this morning.  Been taking a set of lunars & reducing them, the mate kindly helping me.  Alone I reduced one set of aberrations & did the work correctly — by Bowditch — & now I am learning to reduce by Lyons method.  Mr Miller has given me his slate & ephemeris with his calculations.  The mast heads are now delightful, & by changing with different fellows I manage to go aloft with pleasant companions where, keeping a good look out, we gamm about home & past scenes, & the time passes swiftly.  Making thumb line & sennett, sitting on deck & gamming away our watches on deck.  The boats are now rigged out with sails fitted for the light weather we shall cruse in for the next few months.  Its astonishing what an amount of canvass these mere shells will carry.  The mates boat has mainsail, gaff topsail, stunsail, & jib, so has the second mates, while the bow boat with a very large mainsail carrys only a stunsail & jib of dungaree in addition.  Under this sail in a light wind these boats will almost fly over the sea, & nothing can be finer than to sail in them, away from the ship in the mid ocean in pursuit of our tremendious game.  Some boats carry even more sail, but it is difficult to manage more when going onto a whale, & they lumber up the boat.  It is necessary that everything about a whale boat should be of the simplest description, for if anything should catch or impede the line when the boat is fast, the boat would be instantly capsized or stove.  The mate has rigged up his mast & sails in fancy style, with hanks, cletes (?), &c., imprudently I think, for in such matters I believe in perfect simplicity.  Sulphur bottoms are now seen in abundance, but no sperm whales.  In these light winds it will take us a long time to reach our crusing grounds.  Broke out a cask of New Bedford water yesterday, nearly a year old, but sweet, though as rosy as wine.  We were obliged to clean out the cask again, for besides innumerable dead cockroaches, there was a large piece of mouldy & decayed duff floating on the water.  Santa Anna shoving his black carcass into the butt, washed it out roughly & then we filled it afresh.  No very clean operation, though, but of course we must let the water settle, new cockroaches fall in & die & rot, & drink the water with as good a grace as we can command. 

Monday August 8th 1859. 

Weather still delightful, almost a dead calm, & the sea as far as we can see quiet & unbroken.  Delightful at the mast heads, to which I go as often as I can, taking very frequently the Growler’s masthead, as the elevation & motion of the ship is disagreeable to him.  Saw today from the mast head long streaks & lines of right whale feed stretching along the water, of a brownish color, resembling a vast number of minute sponges floating in the sea.  Had no opportunity to examine it.  Also small & snow white shells floating like an egg shell before the wind.  Mate tried to obtain one, but without success.  Sewing & middle stitching fore spencer today.  Old Man making a little house for old woman just forward of the cabin companion way, shifting for the purpose the main brace shieveWorked out a lunar from Mr Millers sights, correctly by Lyon, & found two essential errors in Mr Millers reduction.  Old Man called all hands aft to the waist last night in a dead calm, & standing, leaning on the main fifrail addressed us as follows:  “Now I want you all to hear me.  Dont one of you go to the scuttle butt for a pot of water, except at twelve oclock day or night.  Dont you let me catch you going to it at any other time.  If you want a drink go & get it, but if one of you goes there for a pot of water, except at twelve, I shall know I can tell you, & if I catch one of you, why, I pity that fellow, that’s all.  Now mind.  You that dont understand English, let some of you tell emThats all now.  Go forward,”  & we went forward & below.  Every meal time near a dozen pots of water have been drawn from the butt for vinegar, beer, or swankie, till the Old Man said he wouldnt stand such “damned nonsense” & gave us the order above.  With economy we have water enough to last 3 months longer, but I see no reason why, when there was time & opportunity at Coral, we should not have laid in enough water to give all hands as much as they wish.  Want of stowage room & casks probably prevented.  However, all hands forward have used so much water in the hope of soon exhausting our supply & compelling the Old Man to go into port sooner, for we have had not one day liberty since we left home.  This noon about a dozen went in file to the butt & each drew his pot of water, & last night at twelve Dutchman woke all hands in the forecastle, to get their whack of water, but all except the watch on deck were too sleepy to turn out.  A great amount of growling has resulted from the Old Man’s order, the Growler being in his element, but I must say that with our late ill success, the Old Man does perfectly right in wishing to prolong the cruse as long as possible.  We have crused on two grounds without taking a drop of oil, & on this third ground we must do something even if we have to go on short allowance to do it.  This seems to be the feeling of the Captain & his officers.  Have commenced to teach Curly navigation. 

Wednesday August 10th. 

Yesterday just as I was coming down from the mast head a large school of black fish came up just to windward, & heading for the ship, the Old Man hauled aback the main yard & ordered the mate to lower.  We lowered in the usual order, & taking our paddles, paddled to windward & then set sail, our boat setting her jib.  We then lay too waiting for these capricious fish to come up, which they soon did a little to windward.  We all headed for them, our boat under her large foresail & jib drawing ahead of the other boats, & springing along before the fresh wind as if alive, but as usual the fish went down just before we got within dart of them.  Again they came up, this time to windward, when we took our oars & pulled for them, but again were baffled.  Again they came up just ahead of our boat, & the mates boat that was lying a little abaft our beam.  “Paddle, paddle, spring to  your paddle,” sung out our mate as the mates boat dashed after us, & drawing along side us the two boats heading to one point came close together.  We paddled till the water foamed behind us, & the mate waved his arm & cheered on his men to go by us for the first chance at the fish.  Our officer lay off his boat a little to give the mate his chance, as is customary, & the mates boat darted along a little ahead of us, her men working like bull dogs, & throwing the water from their paddles clear astern, while we followed keeping our own.  The fish were breaching just ahead, plunging & curving their black backs & shoving up through the white foam great fins & flukes that would rise & plunge heavily yet gracefully into the sea ahead, while we strained every move to overtake them before they went down, cheered on by our officers & the sight of our game just ahead — for in paddling we face the bow & can see ahead, while in rowing we must all look astern.  But again we were disappointed.  The boat steerers each poised his iron for a dart, but suddenly the foam before us subsided into the sea, the black humps disappeared, and as we shot through the vanishing white water unbroken by a spout or fin, we knew that our game had again “gone to cover,” and we simultaneously lay on our paddles, a third time disappointed.  We tried two or three times more, but unsuccessfully, till the Old Man set a signal at the mizzen peak for return.  We were about two miles to windward a little abaft the ships beam, & the mate had got a third way to the ship, when we followed the 2nd mate, who was about 2 ships lengths ahead of us.  There was a long swell on the sea, but the water was not rugged, the wind fresh & steady, & our little craft leaning to the breezes, cut through the water like a knife, feeling smart under her new dungaree jib.  We trimmed the boat, and resting at ease watched the 2nd mate’s boat that was gracefully gliding ahead & to windward of us, her black sides relieved by a white ribbon, & handsome clean cut bow, contrasting finely with her white sail, while her men sat watching us in turn.  We soon overhauled & passed her, when her men took to their oars, but our officer saying it was his watch below, & he would sail down to the ship if it took him all day, we sat still & enjoyed our sail.  Thus we raced to the ship, the 2nd mate coming in but a ship length ahead, when we paddled along side & climbing up the chain hoisted our boat to her cranes.  The Old Man says we can’t take ablack fish unless when it blows a gale; they are so easily gallied in these waters of the mid Pacific where every whaler pursues them till they are become very shy.  Tripp sung out for a blow last night when half the ship’s company went aloft, Old Man to fore topsail yard & the mates to the main topmast head, & sat watching a solitary blow till near dark, till at last the reluctant conviction that it was nothing but a fin back brought them all down again.  The Old Man however ordered us to furl the flying jib & top gallant sails, but altering his mind, set them again during the first watch.  This morning when Mr Miller came on deck as usual he went forward to see that the lookout was all right, & finding that it was the Dutchman’s lookout, asked him as he was bending over a wash tub, what he was about.  The Dutchman replyed that he was seeing to his shirts, when Mr Miller, singing out “Damn you & your shirts too, havent I told you always to keep your lookout on the knight heads?” & with that he struck the Dutchman, who fell down against Mr Millers legs, & warded off with his hands several blows which that officer now aimed at him.  Miller, now furious, kicked the prostrate Dutchman in the face, & hauling him about, sent him on to the knight heads.  Curly & I were in the fore hold when we heard Mr Miller swearing at Adam, could hear the blows & the noise of the Dutchman’s fall & his cry of pain, & the 2nd mate’s loud & passionate voice; & after the scuffling heard him pass by the hatch, swearing & exclaiming “G-d damn you & the law, too.  We’re a damn good ways from the coast of the United States,” & his footsteps retreating aft.  We both sprang to our feet at the commencement of the noise, fearing to go on deck lest we should meet the passionate officer, & dreading to stay below lest he should overhaul us, too; but finally agreeing that he wouldn‘t come forward again, we lay down on some rigging & slept till day break unmolested.  The Dutchman, who was unhurt save a swelling over one eye, swears future vengeance, but that is nothing but every day talk.  This is the second time the Dutchman has been struck by the same officer.  We are now a degree & a half to the northward of the line in about 100 longitude, heading E, E by S & E by N, varying with the wind.  Bound where we dont know.  Went to mast head yesterday with Tom who, after gamming a little while, got sleepy & had several sound knaps.  I tried to keep him awake by talking, but it was of no use.  Tom had the fit on him, & when I spoke to him, his big eyes would open & blear stupidly on me, & a half finished sentence would die away on his lips; but eyes & lips would close again.  All this while we were 90 feet above the surface of the sea, clinging to a yard & standing on a narrow cross tree, while the ship was pitching on the long swells. 

Saturday August 13th 1859. 

Wind quite variable, now very fresh when we steer E by S & even E. S. E., & now light, so that the old tub wont come any higher than E. N. E.  A very strong current setting to the westward keeps us back so that we make but little easting, though we are sailing about a degree to the northward of the line & making an eastern board for the Gallipagoes.  Have seen numbers of man o’ war hawks wheeling about the ship, sometimes flying so near that often at the mast head I could almost reach one with my hand.  They are noble birds with glossy black plumage, sometimes spotted with white, & immense spread & strength of wings, small but thick & compact bodies, a short neck, bright eyes, & long narrow bill, the upper portion curved into a hook like this [picture] & a long swallow tail.  Their wings double jointed, allow the body to hang beneath, and with every flap the bird raises its body as if that were useful only to poize the broad pinions [picture].  When soaring high above the sea they will suddenly collapse their wings & dart down like a flash & skimming along the water with great rapidity, snatch a flying fish from the sea, or catch one when on the wing before the fish touches the water again, and then turning to the wind recover with a graceful sweep their lofty station.  I saw one yesterday at an immense height sailing to windward, by suddenly collapsing its wings & darting down a little way & then spreading again his feathery sails sweep upward again upborn by the strong wind, & thus by a succession of inflecting sweeps soar confidently almost among the clouds.  Mr G will allow none of us to sleep anywhere on deck now, but the boatsteerers turn in on the booby hatch as usual.  Night before last, our first watch on deck, both Adam & Santa Anna not coming on deck for some fifteen minutes after the bell was struck for relief — a very common thing, as all hands below are smoking singing or talking for an hour after 6 bells — Mr Miller came forward & sung out for them.  S. and A. came immediately on deck, when Mr Miller asked S. how long he had been below.  “Five minutes,” said the Portugee.  “You lie, damn you, here I’ve been waiting for you twenty minutes,” said the 2nd mate, & he struck Santa in the face with such force that the fellow reeled & staggered for a minute, & then quick enough hopped onto the knight heads for the look out.  Mr Miller turning to the Dutchman slapped him in the face passionately, & with an order for the watch to keep on deck walked off.  I was at the wheel during this, and noticed the 2nd mate pacing up & down the quarter deck uneasily, till at length the fore brace being a little slack, he called out to have it taught & afterwards calling Adam to him, asked him why he couldn’t do as he told him.  Adam replyed he had & meant to & excused himself for being below, when Mr Miller told him he was sorry for striking him; that he felt a great deal worse about it than Adam did; that he was passionate; that he had reason for hating the “Kanaka’s;” that he had nothing against any one forward; & that if Adam wanted anything he had to ask for it, & he should have it.  Adam then went forward, & though pleased at the apology or rather explanation of the officer, yet vowed he should leave at the next port.  This makes the second time Mr Miller has struck Adam, two nights in succession.  His apology was a handsome thing.  He is really generous, usually very kind to the men, & is liked better than any other officer, but then they keep a bright look out for his fist, for it may come at any moment.  I have never had the least difficulty with him since I have been in his watch.  Johnny Come Lately, who is the Comedy of my forecastle life, keeps me awake for near an hour every night by his ludicrous fears — that I will turn out in my sleep & throttle him, or do some murdrous damage in a dream.  He swears that I spout Shakespeare every night, & that once I stepped out onto my chest & struck him in the face, crying out “Come on Macduff & damned be he who first cries Hold! Enough.”  I get to laughing so at his absurd monkey jestures & talk, that I cant sleep, while Johnny shakes a coil of small rope that he has provided he says to make me fast to a stanchion the next time I attack him in a Shakespeare fit.  He says that I wont live long if I read Shakespeare much more, for its a bad book & will make me commit suicide.  The rascal will run on deck when he sees me reading my favorite book, swearing I’m luny, & that he is afraid of me, while there’s no man in the forecastle that dreams such audible dreams as Johnny.  He dreamt one night that the Devil had hold of him, & woke all hands by his cries, till we went to his bunk & found him lying on his back with starting eyes, clenched fists, musch[4] drawn up & perspiring face, hard gone with the night mare.  We are constantly abusing each other in fun, but nothing gives him so much pleasure as to know that I write about him in my journal.  Got a mince pie from Old Woman, who sent me one the other night, but it was stolen from Johnny’s chest in the steerage, probably by Tripp.  So John says.  Johnny cant read or write, but he says he means to overhaul my journal someday and get someone to read to him all I have written about him.  I read it to him & his mouth distends with a grin of delight. 

Sunday August 14th

Very freshwind today, sea rugged.  The barke under all sail but f. t. gsl, plunges heavily through the waves & throws the water all over her head.  Caught on martingale yesterday a number of Albicore, a very handsome fish, powerful and savage, after food, & striped like a zebra.  They would weigh10 or 12 pounds if not more apiece, and as soon as we hauled them up, we cut of their heads and half their breast for cooking, & then threw the bodies overboard, a bloody work, as the powerful struggles of the fish would scatter blood all about & over us.  Their pokes, or stomachs, were filled with several kinds of small fish they had swallowed, a bottle fish [picture] which we could blow up like a bladder, & which the mate called a porcupine fish, & several other kinds, one with a fierce fanged jaw — like a young shark — proving to me that the sea is truly filled with “spawn innumerable.”  One poke was stretched tight as a drum head around a large flying fish that entirely filled it, & yet the fish bit at our bit of a rag as greedily as any, breaching out of the water in his eagerness.  How his piscate brain could deem any addition to such an overloaded stomach possible or reconcilable with easy digestion & continued good health is to me a wonder.  But he paid dearly for his Epicurean tastes by tickling the strong palates of sundry boatsteerers aft.  We of the forecastle reject such unsavory esculents simply because we think slush & fish as bad as brandy & water, a composition that as C. Lamb says spoils two very good simples, in themselves very excellent, but combined, worthless & unpalatable.  These fish are done up in butter for the Epicures aft.  We have had several messes of skip jacks sent forward — cooked by dirty Thompson, who has a festering sore on his hand as a kind of rival to the thick incrusting dirt that covers him from head to foot — but even our forecastle taste hardened by cockroach molasses & water, dirty kids & uncleanly habits rejected the coarse fish swimming in a greasy sea of peppered slush & water.  Nothing sooner mooves the Growler than such a sight.  He to be sure growls at every thing, curses our good beef & pork, indeed everything about & in the ship, but something extra like this draws from him oaths enough to fumigate the forecastle of all inferior sounds & smells.  In one respect he is a very disagreeable ship mate, for one dislikes to hear a companion who has placed himself voluntarily in his situation always cursing & snarling about such trivial matters as he will.  But I’ve written enough.  Tom asleep before me in his bunk, has just shoved out from his bunk in an unquiet dream a big hairy leg & capsized my ink-stand on the preceding page.  I couldnt get angry with him, for this mishap is always imminent when I am writing on my chest, but I told him to dream for the future about straight & not crooked adventures.  The sleepy “Mike” was probably dreaming about the woods of Coral. 

Monday August 16th. 

Wind a little variable, but quite steady from the southward.  Heading under all sail E. S. E.  Cloudy for past few days with a little rain.  Strong current setting to westward.  As we approach the Gallipagos the trades have hauled from S. E to S.  Longitude about 93. west, Lat about 1º north.  Do nothing but stand mast heads & wheels, and sit about decks gamming & laying up thumb line & sennit.  The Portugee are very expert in making all kinds of rope & sheets to our boat.  Give him two or three fathoms of tow line & he will turn out a long coil of very handsome & tightly laid rope.  He is very dexterous.  While at mast head yesterday saw a large & noble looking man o’ war hawk wheeling about the ship, apparently puzzled by the strange shape.  At last with a swoop he bit at the end of the f. j. boom twice & then not satisfied sailed up in a circle towards me, alarmingly near, & not 6 feet from me, with his hooked bill bit hold of the fore royal yard & finding that too hard for him, seized hold of the fore truck.  Disappointed again, & the Dutchman spitting at him, he approached us with such a saucy air that I drew my knife & made a pass at him, not relishing an attack from such a savage bird at such an elevation.  But he soon sailed away till he was lost in the clouds.  Had a long talk with T. Miller in steerage about home matters this morning — a pleasant time.  Our splendid potatoes are beginning to decay.  They are the finest meatiest sweetest potatoes I ever ate. 

Tuesday Aug 17th. 

Made Colpepper & Wen[h]am, the two most westward of the Gallipagos yesterday A. M., & by evening was within about 8 miles of Wenham.[5]  The current sets so strong here that we could hear the water rushing & boiling like a mill race.  The weather was tolerable, but it was cloudy, & a heavy swell on the sea.  I went out on the martingale to fish for albicore after 4 P. M, & watched the islands, blue & high & rugged as they were, with the interest one feels who has been cruising in bad weather on rugged seas for over 4 months without a sight of land.  During the night it was quite calm but a little rainy.  The first watch tacked ship to W. by S. & during the middle watch the Old Man came on deck, when we tacked ship again to E. S. E., thus getting to windward of Wenham.  This morning it rained in drizzling showers & blew almost a gale, so that we were obliged to take in fore top gallant sail — no very auspicious commencement for our Gallipagos cruse.  I have often heard about the fine weather about the Gallipagos, & that it never rains here, but I am already compelled to disbelieve such reports.  These islands appear small, & Wenham as we pass it today about 6 miles abreast it, shows bleak rocks & barren declivities, & a long ridge jutting out like an arm into the sea.  [picture].  We are still two degrees from the main body of these islands.  Jack tells me that these islands produce nothing but turtles or terrapins, a kind of prickly pear, and a species of cabbage tree.  They are also I imagine the haunts of sea fowl & seals.  Curly caught a boobie at the mast head today, & when caught as it lit on the fore royal yard, it cackled like a goose & bit Curly on a finger before he could secure it.  Curly soon let it go, after being heartily laughed at for his pains, & the bird immediately shot down & dove in the sea, as if to compose & smooth his ruffled plumage.  I hear that we are bound for Abington Island, where we shall cruse for a time, the fleet being at Lee bay & north head which are to windward of us, & which we cant make with this wind & strong current.  This ship took the largest whale last voyage that has been taken on this ground for a long time, stowing down 137 bbls.  The whales are commonly small in these waters.  They say that large whales prefer deep water.  

Friday 20th 1859. 

We have left Wenman astern & are now tacking for Abington Island, but no land yet in sight.  It is certainly now charming weather.  Jack tells me it is now the rainy season here.  Sent down our j. & maintopsail & bent on our old jib & patched m. t.sl with the close reef points taken out, an earnest of prospective good weather.   Went out & helped Ellis seize on the hanks to the old jib & had a pleasant talk with the old fellow.  Ellis is a little short Old Man with a sunken mouth & a low voice, who is continually munching tobacco, while his chin & nose bat at each other like a second Punch who has left his Judy behind him.  He was 3rd mate during his last voyage, & endures with secret grumbling the authority & importance of our young officers, who make more free — he tells me — than any he ever saw.  He detests the “niggers” who are better treated — he says — than his own country men, & who will, if you give them an inch, take a mile.  I dont wonder at his dislike for the “natives.”  They are certainly the most impudent, insulting & filthy talking beings I ever saw.  Ellis thinks the mate a good seaman, but dont like his fancy work or the way he manages, & calls him a regular Nantucket blower.  He thinks him partial, especially to Tripp, who is a conceited, aping, & exceedingly proud coarse fellow.  But Ellis knows his place & his duty too, & never growls within hearing, but being out on the jib boom, he eased his mind to me, while the rest of the crew were bending the topsail.  I like the quiet Old Man & he is liked by every one.  Always pleasant, he sometimes cut’s a hornpipe or imitates some drunken scrape, to the infinite divertisement of the boatsteerers and officers aft, who evidently pet the old chap.  But he never interferes with the foremast hands, among whom he is a bit of an oracle.  Our wretched cook has another boil on his hand, & his arm is covered with scars & filmy scabs.  He wipes his discharging putrid sores with the same cloth with which he wipes our meat kids & which serves him in the double office of handkerchief & dish cloth.  This is literal & precise truth.  The steward cant do anything with, but wont allow him even to watch the cabin food when cooking.  From sheer ignorance he talks low like a bully, & threatens the steward, but no greater coward lives, or rather he dont know either courage or fear from mere stupidity, & the slightest thing will make him blubber like a baby.  The cockroaches swarm around the galley like ants or flies in midsummer, & our duff & grub is filled with the vermin.  No wonder then that we often reject our food, when we cut through the bodies of boiled cockroaches or look at the dirt & bursting sores of our cook.  It is a great shame, & for it I must blame the Old Man, though indeed Thompson is not fit for anything else.  Still making thumb line & sennit.  Frank P. sung out “Thar she breaches” yesterday, when the Old Man going aloft kept the ship off for the breaches, & soon made it out to be a large diamond fish, numbers of which we have seen [picture] breaching finely (?) with a large fish clinging to each flipper, which he was trying to shake off by plunging and breaching violently.  We then luffed to full & by, disappointed, for in truth we are anxious enough for oil, the officers for money, & the foremast hands for clothes.  There is no prospect of the slop chest opening till we get a whale, & the foreward hands are getting decidedly ragged & patched, many having no changes of clothes.  It is a wonder to me how their outfit has lasted them so long, but patching has done the work.  We have had but little “greasy luck” for the past four months. 

Saturday 21st 1859. 

Occasional fine showers today.  All hands during their watch on deck were kept on the lookout for land last night, & ordered to keep their heads above the rail.  We were standing on the larboard tack to the southward  & eastward, and looked for land on the weather bow, but nothing was in sight, till this morning when by day light we discovered land on the lee bow & to our surprise made it out to be Culpepper.  Thus from the strong current we have drifted back to the land we made three days ago.  The Old Man on coming on deck was not a little excited, & immediately tacked ship.  We are now again standing to the eastward, but the winds are variable, & the barke will sometimes come no higher than N. E. by E. & not, at present, at any time higher than E. by S.  So we shall have some difficulty in making the windward Islands.  Commenced “Paradise Regained” having finished for the 3rd time the noble & sweet strains of “Paradise Lost.”  Broke out water & beef & pork this morning, the only real work we do during the week.  Ours is a lazy life. 

Monday August 23rd 1859. 

Rainy & quite cold at masthead.  Still standing to eastward under all sail.  A little rugged.  Two nights ago Shanghai with a piece of beef — his share — a little larger than a dollar, went on deck to show his allowance to the Old Man, but soon came below — as the Old Man had gone to supper — clutching the beef in his big fist.  The men had been growling for some time back about their slim allowance of meat & the nasty messes sent forward by our dirty cook.  Yesterday morning our breakfast came down in the shape of a few potatoes sliced & cooked in slush with one or two bits of pork, a composition that we could eat even with relish had there been enough of it.  There was no meat, and when the mess was “whacked” out, the shares were so slim & so inadequate to our sea appetites & sea stomachs that one by one all hands agreed to carry the grub aft & show it to the Captain.  I reluctantly agreed to the plan for in general I have disapproved such measures, but in this instance I joined my shipmates, convinced it was time to let the Old Man know what wretched food we were getting.  I was chosen spokesman.  The men who were to relieve the mast head & wheel waited to go aft with us, & taking a pan containing one man’s meagre “whack” I went on deck followed by every man.  We waited for some time for the Old Man to come from below, until the man at the wheel, impatient, struck a bell for relief; but we motioned to him to keep quiet.  At last the Old Man made his appearance on the quarter deck.  As soon as we saw him walking up & down as usual, we all walked aft, I heading with the pan of grub.  Followed by all hands at my back I walked up to the Cap, who paused just abaft the mainmast, & with as much respect in my manner as I could assume, I said, holding out the pan:  “Captain, all hands of us agreed this morning to come aft & show you our grub.  That is one man’s allowance, & its a fair index of what we get every morning.  Besides our grub is generally filled with cockroaches, especially our duff, which we have to eat in cut in thin slices to eat.”  Here the mate, who was standing in the waist with the other officers, came up & looked into the pan. I had hardly opened my mouth to continue & respectfully ask for more grub, when the Old Man interrupted me by stepping quickly up & lifting his broad fist clutched me by the beard & jerked me along.  Then catching me by the collar he struck me & shoved me forward as he shouted:  “Get forward you, get forward,” & he kicked me as he let go his hold.  Nearly stupefied by such strange conduct, I paused by the try works & looked aft, when the Old Man, shaking his fist at me sung out:  “Get forward, I say;” & then advancing furiously towards the men who had been standing behind me, expecting anything but such an answer — for the Old Man had told us in Coral to “all come aft when we wanted more grub” — he waved his arm & shouted again:  “Go forward there, all of you, go forward, I say,” & the men came forward sullenly.  The Old Man followed them up to the main tack when he called out:  “Relieve the wheel there,” & then walked aft. I saw the 3rd mate laugh at this scene, & he evidently considered it as fun.  But I can find no possible excuse for such treatment.  We have been told both by the Captain & the officers to go aft in a body when we have any complaint to make.  Our manner was respectful, & our movements orderly.  But the Captain has a devil in him.  He told us at Coral he would make us “suck our thumbs damn close,” & he has kept his word.  I was chosen as spokesman because uniformly well treated by the Old Man & the object of a good deal of attention from the old woman.  It was thought the Captain would listen to me sooner than to any other foremast hand, & with this intention the choice evinced our desire to be moderate & respectful in making our request.  But the result showed us how little the Old Man cared for any of us, & what a tyrant a skipper may be to his crew when passion & cupidity are his only guides.  Mr Blacklers kind intentions in supplying the ship with the best of beef & pork, fine sweet bread & excellent tea & coffee have been in a measure frustrated by the Captain’s desire to make a saving voyage.  The Old Man, walking aft & seeing Thompson, called to him:  “Get out of that & go forward,” & the miserable fellow, thinking his occupation gone, came forward blubbering, while his clothes, grimy & stiff as boards from dirt, shook, almost rattled on his trembling carcass.  But the Old Man soon changed his mind, for he again cried out:  “There you, Thompson, get into that hole again,” pointing to the galley, the hive of cockroaches, the home of slush.  I feel that further comment on the Captain’s conduct — to me inexplicable — is useless.  I do not know of a man in the forecastle who does not intend to leave the ship at the next port; & while I feel that a few would leave at any rate, even if well treated by the Old Man, yet I know that it will be mainly the Captains fault if his whole crew forward desert at Payta.  Thompson never in the slightest degree had anything to do with the cabin food.  The steward prepared & cooked all, never allowing Thompson even to watch the food while cooking, & he often said that nothing would tempt him to eat any of Thompsons messes.  Thus so long as his own food was clean & well cooked, the Captain didnt care what we had forward, nasty or clean, it was all the same to him.  Many a time I have seen the dirty, unwashed & boil covered hands of Thompson passing down the kids & satisfied my appetite with “swankie” or hard bread. 

Thursday August 25th 1859. 

Decidedly bad weather, rain frequent & cloudy almost constantly, winds a little variable, sometimes strong & occasionally very light.   Night watches disagreeable.  Mastheads cold.  Now about on the line, & nearly two degrees to the eastward of the Gallipagos.  Stood on the eastern tack till yesterday when we tacked ship to the southward & eastward & kept so for half a day, when we again tacked to the eastward.  This morning we are again standing S. W. & with the strong current in our favor will probably make the Islands soon.  All kinds of reports are circulating about going into port.  We overhauled the fresh water hose the other day, & immediately it was reported we were bound for Tombez.  But no one can predict anything of the Old Man’s intentions.  The mate offered to bet that in 3 months we would be in high latitudes, but this I think impossible.  Two mornings since the 3rd mate sung out from the mast head:  “Thar she breaches,” and the officers roused by the cry sprung into the rigging as another cry came from aloft:  “Thar she lop tails (?),” and again:  “Thar she lop tails,”(?) and in a moment more: “Thar blows,” & the old familiar cry’s rang out clear from aloft.  But our excitement was dashed as a heavy mist swept over the ship & ahead, obscuring the sea & heaven; & though the Cap & mates went aloft with their glasses, nothing further was seen, though a few hours afterwards two or three faint breaches were raised a great distance off our weather quarter.   Algerines and sharks now occasionally play around the ship, & schools of the graceful flying porpoise frequently sport about our bows, though we have not been able to strike any of these beautiful animals.  All the foremast hands, having exhausted thumb line & sennit, are making scrub broom teeth.  Am studying dead reckoning, having mastered in addition to lunars & how to obtain the ships time, latitude & longitude, plane, traverse, paralell & Mercators sailing.  Am reading History of the Pachaderms by Sir Hans Sloane & the Travelling Batchelor by Cooper besides my nightly Milton Paradise Regained & Shakespeare. The Pirates own Book is a favorite in the forecastle.  My teaching still continues.  Have persuaded Frank Welley to give up novels & read history.   Found for him Peter Parleys[6] History of the World with which he is now occupied. 

Sunday August 28th 1859. 

Cloudy, cold, blowing hard, sea rugged, so cold that thick clothing necessary to comfort.  And yet we are but about 40 miles to the southard of the line, & crusing in the boasted calm seas & mild genial weather of he mid Pacific.  Broke out the remains of our fine potatoes from fore hold, & found most of them far gone in decay.  An execrably nasty job the potatoes covered with immense cockroaches.  Hundreds of man o’ war hawks were circling around and above the ship occasionally dropping their faeces on deck & on the men at the mast heads.  They are land birds & never light in the water, from which they have no means of rising.  One lit on main truck & displayed short legs with unwebbed feet.  I have seen them more than a thousand miles from any land in pursuit of food.

Monday Aug 29th 1859. 

We are at length bound into port.  Dispairing of doing anything to leeward, the Old Man has determined to wood & water at Tombez & then go into Payta for letters &c & give liberty there.  Today though blowing almost a gale we are under all sail, & plunging & plowing through a very rugged sea.  All hands delighted at the prospect.  Overhauling & renewing the service to chain stoppers, ring stoppers, shark painters &c, & getting saws, baskets &c ready.  The ship after coming from port is bound to windward, to the Archer ground, & then as soon as the season will permit for old, familiar Masafuera.  But I shall probably leave at Payta, taking a schooner to Guyaquil, thence to Callao & Lima, & thence by way of China or India home around the East Cape.  Manuel is making two handsome beckets for my chest with man rope knots.  All is excitement & hope, & the intended runaways & laying their plans for a successful “vamose.”  I regret that we have taken no more oil or that we havent made a longer stay at the Islands.  But I have seen enough of whaling, & now Ho for the Merchant Service!  I anticipate a little difficulty in leaving, but nothing that resolution cant overcome.

Wednesday August 31st 1859. 

Yesterday morning we made Point St. Helena, & in the afternoon, when at the mast head, I raised the long line of the South American coast from which the point juts out so as to resemble an island.  Saw merchant barke under all sail heading with us.  She had lost her main top gallant mast.  3 whalers also seen off our lee beam & bow.  Hump  backs seen in numbers breaching & blowing ahead.  One ship anchored off the point probably humpbacking.  Saw just after dark a long fire in the direction of the point — dry seaweed or brush burning.  Tacked ship several times during the night.  Our very cautious skipper as usual keeping well clear of the land.  As a consequence saw the merchant barke far ahead of us at daybreak, & the wind lulling to a dead calm, we are now drifting slowly with the current which sets inland.  Tombez ahead, but we shall be unable to make it till tomorrow, if then.  Been hard at work scraping off the rust from the iron work about the ship & painting the chains, dead eye straps &c in red.  Have not yet got up the cables.  Traded two pairs of linen drawers, two white shirts, some tooth powder & an old handkerchief for two new pairs of dungaree pants.  Am glad that our long, weary, uncheckered cruise is so near ended.  Drifting about with the winds & currents, passing slowly over vast reaches of barren ocean, uncheered by the sight of land or sails, without the excitement of pursuing our gigantic game, or even seeing a solitary blow, our only companion the porpoise, the dolphin & the flying fish, or the man o’ war hawk & the boobie; our path over the sea attended by somber clouds & rugged waves, by squall & by rain, & our lives passing as lazily as our laggard ship — from such a cruise I am glad to be relieved.  By the very contrast, the undulating dim coast ahead & the presence of neighboring sails give us a life & a new vigor, hope & joy we have not had for nearly five months.  Every one cheerful, & all hands getting their long shore togs ready & overhauling shirts, pants &c.

Thursday Sept 1st 1859. 

Went to mast head yesterday P. M. & saw a fine prospect.  Genial, beautiful weather, warm & sunny, a gentle wind from N. W, the low coast about 5 miles distant.  Sandy, ridgy & its base white with breakers.  Two schooners between us & the shore bending to the wind; a bungie close on our lee beam with its square sail & small jib; & away in the distance blue peaks of distant mountains.  Butterflies & land birds came off to us.  The Pacific certainly in these latitudes near the coast is a serene & beautiful sea.  Again saw a red light last night a great distance off, which the Cap said was caused by an erupting volcano.  We could see occasional flashes of bright flame.  The 3rd mate strangely enough said it was nothing but the breakers dashing on Dead Mans Island.  The Cap wore ship last night & managed to keep us back so that we only raised Tombez point this noon.  Dead Mans Island has been plain in sight all day.  Even its light house on the highest point of the Island is visible from deck.  This island lies about 20 miles from Tombez.  Expect to be in and drop anchor this P. M.  Got up & ranged both cables yesterday afternoon & bent on to the larboard anchor, & this A. M. got the starboard anchor off the bows & bent on the light cable.  Great numbers of hump backs breaching about us.   Large bone shark run down by the ship.  Our duff this noon heavy & watery was literally filled with dirt & cockroaches.  I didnt eat a morsel of the filthy food, but sat laughing at the discoveries the fellows made as they carefully sliced their duff.  “Hullo! heres a piece of old Thompsons hat” cried Johnny.  “Here’s a big worm.”  “Look at these cockroaches.”  “I’ve bit a cockroach in two.”  “Lets make Thompson eat ‘em when he comes below,” came from different empty mouths, while all hands roared out as Curly, finding to his disgust that he was munching a boiled cockroach, rushed to the slop bucket, & holding out his soggy duff, cried:  “Who wants my duff?  Does you Tom?” & finding no purchasers, flung his duff into the bucket.  But no one cares to speak to the Old Man about our grub, whiskers being too luxuriant in the forecastle.  8 P, M.  Came to anchor off Tombez at 4 this P. M.  My watch below this afternoon, and my watch was called at 3.  On going on deck saw just ahead a long, low beach reaching north & south, & to the northward fading away & leaving nothing but tree tops, clusters of foliage, apparently growing in the air.  The coast very low, was fringed by a thick growth of trees, and the white beach by the gentlest of slopes met the long swells of the ocean.  Away in the back ground lofty & irregular mountains rising above the green foliage of the coast gave evidence of high land in the interior.  A break in the beach & verdure showed us the mouth of Tombez river.  5 ships were laying at anchor about 1/2 mile from the shore, & so long was the coast that from our deck the highest tree tops didnt reach up halfway to the main tops of the ships, & their hulls loomed up large compared with the shore.  The wind was blowing inshore & before the wind we rapidly reached our anchorage, & as we approached the ships, we made out four of them to be whalers, & one a Peruvian brig bound for Callao.  We watched them, & soon made out one to be the old Chili, which we gamed on the Archer ground.  We passed between her & the Montgomery as they lay heading towards us from the flowing tide.  As we swept by the old Chili her crew, many of whom we reckognized, waved a welcome to us, & we dropping a little astern of her, let go our anchor & brot up in a line with the other ships.  We furled everything by watches & soon our old craft was riding under bare poles, not in a harbor, for we are merely anchored off a long & slightly curving coast.  The skipper of the Montgomery came aboard as soon as we dropped our mud hook, & soon our Old Man lowered & went aboard the Mary Ann.  We began immediately to wash off & scrape the outside of the ship & sent aloft burton & fish tackle to hoist in our water.  While our Old Man was aboard the Mary Ann, the Cap of the port came off in a light whale boat, & civily saluted the mate whom he mistook for the Captain, but being told by our blunt mate that the Cap was absent, he coldly stepped aside, & with considerable importance, paced up & down our quater deck, & at last asked for a spy glass & scanned a bungie that was approaching from the southward.  He was a young, fine-looking, well — even elegantly — dressed man, & in a little while he left, coldly touching his hat to the mate, who evidently cared as little for him.  He afterwards came aboard again.  Tonight the “gamers” began their visits, which we must now expect every evening while we remain here.  The Chili’s men brot us the news of a mutiny aboard their ship.  Their skipper striking a man at the wheel was the pretext for all hands to go aft & refuse duty unless the ship was immediately headed for port, & the Captain finding them firm, & not being himself very energetic or determined, he immediately wore ship & came here, & put seven of the crew in the Calaboose, where they will remain so long as he pays two royals per man each day, a slight punishment, & as they will be out tomorrow, have their chests & clothes, & as much as they can drink.  They will all go in a bungie to Guyaquil & ship on merchantmen.  In fact they have had no punishment at all.  Heard that the old Virginia has been dooing well on the Gallipagos ground.  John Austin, who is known throughout the whale fleet, came off bringing some plantains, & was told by the Old Man never to come aboard again unless he brot some oysters.  He is a pleasant looking darkie, & acts as a kind of agent & market man for all the whalers who touch here.  Now a beautiful starry night, but the gammers are in full blast.  Natives or Peruvians have already come off to trade for fruit — they will soon I think begin to smuggle off aquadente or anicou. 

Friday Sept 2nd 1859.  

Stood anchor watches last night, one boat steerer & bow oarsman to each boat, & tonight midship oarsman, & so each night.  All hands called & got breakfast at 6 this morning, & after breakfast by watches broke from fore & main holds empty water casks; and about 8 oclock the Old Man & woman lowered in the starboard & I & a boats crew pulled them up the river to Samonte’s.  (?) The ship lying about 3/4 of a mile from shore, we pulled away till we approached the mouth of the river, when we saw numbers of pelicans flapping through the air, skimming along with the immense wings & heads & bills as long as their bodies, & suddenly diving with a heavy splash & bringing up in their large pouchs a fish which they would swallow by throwing up their  heads & gobbling down their game.  And as we entered the mouth of the river, which is very shallow, a long bar extending across the entrance, white with breakers, a long line of surf, we saw numbers of these great birds standing like sentinels on the low beach watching immovably for fish, or perched on some old tree or snag that laid stranded on the bar.  On the left of the entrance on a low sandy point were two or three bamboo houses built on piles and elevated some 8 feet above the ground, & thatched with long grass or stalks.  The river rapidly narrowed, till its width was about 150 feet; & as we rowed along its quiet waters, we could see on either bank the luxuriant growth of strange trees & plants.  Accustomed to pull in rugged seas, the still, smooth water of the river offered but little obsticale to our boat, & we shot along the winding river, new views constantly opening on us, to me a source of constantly increasing pleasure.  We soon lost sight of the sea & were soon surrounded by thick copses, matted under growth, and occasional clumps of new & beautiful trees.  All was strange & tropical.  Immense birds were flying in every direction, & as we advanced up the river, birds of bright plumage flitted about us, & the turkey buzzard with his fringed & broad wings was soaring about or foraging on occasional open spots on the banks.  We passed several little open & cultivated openings with the same kind of houses we first saw, & pulled away without a pause for 5 miles, till we came to Dominga, where in a beautiful grove we saw a house of the same description but better built, women sitting on the open platform & long tailed horses tethered & feeding among the trees, while canoes hollowed out of a single tree were drawn up on the beach.  About 1/2 mile further on we pulled, the river winding around sandy points & along shelving banks clothed to the edge with vegetation, clusters of cocoanut trees & plantains getting frequent, birds singing sweet music to us, so long absent from land, while the iguana & the lizard were running or creeping on the green shore, till we came to Lamonte’s, (?) where we pulled ashore & landed our skipper & wife  {It is impossible for me to write further in detail, for the forecastle is filled with gammers, & I am exceedingly fatigued, so I must resort to my old plan of notes} Describe Lamonte – skippers ashore – old woman going up to the house – picking lemons – appearance of house – its arches – sugar mill &c — {I can write no more as all hands are entertaining the gamers & I must do my part; continued on page 244.} 

Sunday Sept 11 1859. 

Left Tumbez yesterday, tripped our anchor about 3 P. M., & under all sail stood out to sea, passing astern of the old Dominga & Wm Lee & right through the fleet abreast of the Virginia, which has just dropped her anchor, & which we with difficulty recognized in a coat of new paint.  As we passed by the windward brig George hailed us & waved his hat, but we had little time to exchange “good byes,” for we were hard at work catting & fishing both anchors.  The fleet of 14 sail gradually dropped astern as we stood out on the starboard tack to the N. W., & the low coast & familiar landmarks of the river & point faded away into indistinct outlines, while the blue, hazy forms of the Cordilleras, rising & disappearing in clouds, grew for a little while more distinct & relieved by the level beams of the sun setting far ahead in the western waves, till at last all became blended in one dark gray cloud as we tacked ship & stood along the coast.  We stood on all night, making short tacks, the officers for the first time tacking ship, while the Old Man was below.  Our skipper night or day has always attended to this maneuver himself.  This morning delightful weather, about 5 miles from land, quite calm, warm & pleasant, sea & air & sky all genial, the coast getting higher & more varied.  Expect to be in Payta by Tuesday.  Stand half watches to Payta.  Must refer to my notes for a discription of my visit to Tumbez.  I have been too tired with pulling & working to write in this journal.  Hardly a day has passed that I have not pulled 10 or 15 miles. 

Monday Sept 12th 1859. 

Stood on by short tacks along the coast, sometimes within a mile of land, all yesterday .  Land getting higher & coast more rugged, wind freshening till we came in sight of Cape Blanco.  On turning out for the middle watch we found the starboard watch just coming from aloft having reduced sails to double reefed topsails.  It was blowing a stiff gale, & the barke was laboring in a very rugged sea, but our usual good fortune stood by us, for we did nothing but wear ship just as our watch was up, & this morning on coming out after breakfast we found the ship again under all sail.  Cape Blanco, always surrounded by stormy & rugged weather, is now about 10 miles ahead, & by night we shall probably have weathered it, but it still blows stiffly, & the ship pitches on a heavy sea, in decided contrast to the weather we had Saturday & Sunday morning, when the winds fanned us along with the gentlest of gales & the sea was so smooth that the ripples from the bow increased & swept away in broad circles.  Stripping cocoa nut leaves from their back bones of spine which make excellent brooms.  Many of us troubled with jiggers, a little insect that penetrates the flesh under the toe nails & causes — if not destroyed — pain & bad swellings, a consequence of going ashore barefooted.  Have to cut them out with a knife & needle. 

Tuesday Sept 13th 1859. 

Blowing hard, very rugged, weather cold.  Reduced sail last night by furling m. t. gsl. & f. j. & single reefing topsails, & beat up by 4 hour tacks.  The wind sets dead in our teeth, & yesterday at noon we had made but 26 miles in the last 24 hours.  The coast higher & more irregular to windward of Cape Blanco presents an unvarying monotony of sand hills & slopes.  Not a tree or shrub to relieve the yellowish-tawny shore.  Yesterday from 4 P. M till after supper I spent the coldest mast head I have yet had, the wind blowing almost a gale from the southward, & piercing me through & through with its chill blast, till my teeth chattered, my eyes watered, & I clung shivering to the royal yard, blearing through the keen wind till at last the excitement of crying out:  “Thar she breaches,” “Thar blows,” “Thar blows,” as a school of humpbacks tumbled & spouted, showing great black humps & swallow tailed flukes right ahead, & a school of black fish breached right under our bows, warmed me a little, & I soon forgot cold & excitement in a pot of hot tea & a mess of sweet potatoes. Spare t. g. sl. l. booms are lashed abaft main rigging loaded down with plantains & bannanas, & as soon as the officers go below to their meals, half a dozen men spring aloft & crowd their bosoms with the fruit & get down & below before the Old Man comes on deck.  There is little chance for a bannana or plantain to get ripe, as many quick eyes watch the fruit & so many quick hands seize during night watches and at meal times.  The Old Man has positively tabooed the plantains, but that makes little difference.  Though it blows so hard & is so rugged, the Old Man is aloft on m. t. gsl yard watching for the {to him} familiar landmarks about Payta. 

Wednesday Sept. 14th 1859. 

Yesterday about 4 P. M. we came in sight of the harbor, & though still a great distance off, the Old Man determined to run in that night, & though it blew almost a gale, under everything, foretopgallant sail even, we ran in & came to anchor about 6 oclock, & finished stowing & furling by dark. 

Monday Sept 26th 1859. 

We laid at Payta ten days.  Each watch had one days liberty, for 3 men ran away from the starboard watch — Frank Pillsbury, Frank Willey & Charley Curtis; & though our watch had liberty the next day, and all of us came aboard at the proper time, yet the Old Man refused to give the foremast hands any more liberty, but allowed the officers & boatsteerers liberty every day for the next week.  The Old Man called all hands aft the morning after our liberty was stopped, & told us that he had intended to have given all of us liberty every day we remained in port, so long as we behaved ourselves, but that already 3 men had run away, & that he knew of others who had letters to a certain man in town to stow them away; that they had asked this man to hide them; that he — the Old Man — knew all about it, & knew who the men were; that it was of no use to deny it, & now, said the Old Man:  “I’l tell you what I’l do.  The moment I catch the runaways & get them in the calaboose I’l give you your liberty.  Now mind.  Thats all I’ve got to say.”  None of us expected that the runaways would be caught, for it was known that they had gone into the interior, well provided with water & provisions.  So with sullen curses upon the Old Man & “one armed Bill,” the man who was supposed to have given the Old Man his information, the men day after day performed their light harbour duties, growling constantly in the most discontented spirit, for each watch has had but two days liberty since we left home.  A picked crew of Portugees were detailed for boat duty, a circumstance that added to the general dissatisfaction.  We did but little — painting the chains, breaking out bread & water, & doing occasional jobs — & passed most of our time watching the steamers & ships that left & entered the port.  Very little liquor was smuggled aboard, though canoes frequently brought native men & women off to the ship.  At last two days before we sailed, the rumors that the runaways were taken, rumors that commenced the morning after they left, were confirmed, for being ashore on boat duty I actually saw the 3 men in the calaboose, one of them — Frank P — being extremely ill, & lying helpless & uncared for on a rough platform of old boards, surrounded by fleas & the noise of the adjacent plaza.  I brought the news aboard, & the men immediately thought the Old Man should keep his promise & give us liberty, but not a word from the Old Man about liberty gave us the slightest hope of any enjoyment ashore.  It was over two days before we sailed, & notwithstanding his express promise — that the moment he had the runaways in the calaboose, “no matter if it were 12 oclock, he would take a boat & come aboard & give us liberty,” — the Old Man deliberately broke his word, didnt say a word to us about liberty, didnt offer any explanation, but came & went & enjoyed himself & the company of the old woman as usual; & left his crew to shift for themselves.  For my own part, the Old Man refused to give me my discharge, ignoring my contract, declaring I had shipped for 18 months, & that he had orders to see that I was aboard some vessel bound direct to the United States, grounding some further reasons on a care for my health & comfort & after detaining me for another long cruise of 6 months, refusing to give me any money for the purchase of paper & ink & a few necessaries, on the ground that he had no money, when he afterwards brot off a boat load of comforts for himself & old woman.  I was obliged to exchange my gold sleeve buttons for paper & ink enough to carry on this journal. Last Saturday morning we tripped anchor, the men heaving away with slow & sullen strokes, without our accustomed shanties, though Happy struck up “Bulley in the Alley,” & soon dropped it as no one but Charley the runaway joined in, & finally getting the anchor to the bows, we set all sail & left Payta & its shipping astern till we rounded Payta head when we saw no more of the old town, as we stood out to sea, bound for the Callao ground on a long cruise of 6 months, our crew discontented & cursing our skipper worse than ever.

————————————————————————————————————I shall here discontinue my log in this book, & reserve the remaining pages for notes of my visit to Tumbez & Payta, & a continuation of my description of a trying out scene & the capture of a whale.  I continue my log & journal on page 258 of my supplement log book, & refer to my notes for an account of our visit to Tumbez & Payta.  vide pages 236 & 244.-242.


Chase of a lone whale off Massafuera – Jany 26th 1860

A little after 6 oclock on the morning of the 26th — it being my watch below — I was awakened by long loud crys of “Thar blows,” “Thar blows,” coming from aloft.  I haistily dressed & with my watch mates passed on deck.  The rigging was filled with men, & from all parts of the ship came those regular crys that denote a sperm whale in sight.  I soon learned that 2 whales were raised about 3 miles from the ship.  We crowded on everything in chase.  Our breakfast was now sent down.  This was soon finished, & then we got the boats ready for lowering. The whales were down, & we waited for them to come up before we lowered.  In 45 minutes from the time they went down they appeared again about 4 miles from the ship.  The wind was light & the ship was losing in the chase.  The Old Man now ordered us to lower, telling the mate as we shoved off, that he would set the colors when he wanted us to to hoist our sails & take our paddles.  Off we started, the mate leading.  But presently the bow boat pulled ahead, & soon we of the starboard had passed the mate & 2nd mate, & were close astern of the bow boat.  We pulled for 2 miles.  Our boat was now leading the other boats when we saw the signal set & flying from the ship’s mizzen peak.  All the boats now set their sails and paddled away, heading N. W.  No whales were in sight, but we headed N. W by the boats compasses, in the direction the whales were going when last seen from the ship.  The bow boat, setting her stunsail, gradually drew ahead of us, & now the boats were sailing & paddling to leeward, with the wind on our quarter.  There was a very heavy swell rooling from the S. W.  It was a bright clear day.  The wind lulled when we first set sail, but in 2 hours time it freshened a little.  On we kept, steadily paddling till the ship was far astern & finally out of sight.  For 3 hours we saw nothing but the swelling sea, a few birds, & the white boat sails as they rose & fell behind the long heaves of the sea.  We were all of us tired, & wearily urging our boat through the water, when about 11 A. M. Johnny suddenly started from his seat in the head of the bow and cried out:  “Thar blows,”  “Close to the bow boat.”  We saw as we eagerly watched the bow boat several spouts apparently close to herWe worked away hard enough for a chance at the whale, but presently the blows ceased, & we saw the bow boat keep off a little & then luff to, with her sail shaking in the wind.  We had gained a little on her, but she soon kept off again to her old course.  Convinced from these movements that she was close to the whale, we paddled away with renewed ardor.  In half an hours time we saw spouts again close to the bow boat.  But the wind now began to lull till finally it became a dead calm, the very ripples on the surface of the immense swells sunk away & left the water smooth without a wave.  As a great rooler would sweep down on us, it would drive before it a body of air that would fill for a moment our flapping sail, the boat would lean to the breeze, & then rool back with a slatting sail as the long wall of water passed to leeward & left us again becalmed in the trough of the sea.  We kept on this way for 2 hours more.  The other boats were now some distance astern.  We had seen blows every half hour just ahead of the bow boat, & we kept steadily on in pursuit.  Suddenly Mr Tilson sung out:  “Thar blows” on our lee beam, & he instantly brought the boat around, & as he slacked of the sheet, he said:  “There’s the whale, Mr Goland has run by him.”  He now told us to take our paddles out & let the boat run before the wind which had now freshened so that our light craft, now before the wind, was running smartly to leeward.  He was afraid of again passing by the whale.  The blows which Mr Tilson saw soon ceased, and the whale sounded.  We had now an opportunity to bailout our leaky boat & take a lunch of hard bread & water.  The mate & 2nd mate seeing us keep off followed us, & the 3 boats were soon in a line heading N. N. W., for the whale had pulled 2 points from his N. W. course.  The mate under mainsail, gaff topsail & stunsail was slowly overhauling us, while Mr Miller just held his own about a mile astern.  For half an hour we kept on.  Mr Goland had also kept off & was running down to us.  The mates boat under the increasing, but inconstant wind, rooled on the long swells, till she nearly capsized once or twice.  We soon saw the mate take to his paddles.  It afterwards appeared that neither the mate or 2nd mate had seen anything of the whale since they had left the ship.  The mate had long since given up the chase, & was now trying to overhaul us to inquire if we had seen any reason to keep on as we did.  Mistaking this movement, & supposing that the mate had caught sight of the whale, we earnestly looked about, & almost instantly discovered the whale blowing about a quarter of a mile off our larboard bow, & heading across across our bows.  We instantly luffed to avoid going onto the whales eye.  So did the mate, so as we eagerly watched our game as he, unconscious of danger, was moving through the water at the rate of 4 knots, the mate sung out to us to take our paddles.  We did so, & sprang to our work with an ardor to be appreciated only by whalemen.  We gradually drew astern of the whale, & soon were heading directly for him.  “Spring her boys, Spring, jerk her up,” sung out our officer in low tones, & every man did his utmost.  Unfortunately the wind now died away, & left us dependent on our paddles.  But we still steadily overhauled the whale.  As we neared him, we saw that he was of immense size.  From a great, broad, reddish brown mass just above the surface of the sea every moment or two burst out a little cloud of spray that shot up in jerks like imprisoned steam suddenly loosed from confinement — or as I have seen the fountain on Boston Common send up its columns in irregular puffs.  The whale formed a mass of vapory water about 10 feet high, the top spread out, so that the drops fell in a circle about the whales head.  Away — it seemed 50 feet from the spout — appeared the whales hump, cutting through the water that foamed about it, curved & hooked like a large black fish hump, but vastly larger, & visible a foot or two above the sea.  The water was all afoam, not from the speed of the whale entirely, but necesarily from so vast a body moving through it with such resistless power.  Every time the whale spouted, he showed a long & immense head, which we could see as we neared him, was mottled with large grayish spots, one larger than a barrel some 15 feet abaft his nose; while all the surface of his body that we could see was lumpy with fat & hilly with oily blubber.  We kept on excited beyond description by the rich sight.  The wale was spouting regularly & low.  It was evident that he wasnt gallied.  We were close astern of his curious old hump, for it was unlike any other hump that I have seen on a whale, & were about half a ships length abaft his mottled gray, submerged, form, when suddenly up rose a splendid pair of flukes black as night & broad as our quarter deck, & sweeping high in the air, curved slowly with an indescribable confidence & grace into the sea — & the whale had gone down.  Disappointed we lay too for the other boats to come up.  The mate & Mr Goland soon came along side, the latter officer reporting that he had been within two ships length of the whale some five times, till he had finally run by him.  We found that the whale was still heading N. N.W, so the boats kept on in pursuit.  Our boat dropped a little astern of the larboard & bow boats as they under stunsails & jibs outsailed our craft that carried only a mainsail.  Mr Miller was lagging some distance astern.  Presently the whale rose again, this time to windward.  We had again run by him.  Our boat instantly headed for him, but Mr Miller seeing our movements, anticipated us, & as he was nearest, we lay too to watch his success.  Mr Miller till this moment had seen nothing of the whale.  He at first thought it was a sulphur bottom that was blowing & he made ready to shoot him.  Old Ellis however recognized the spout as that of a sperm whale, & this opinion of the old whaleman directly caused every man to paddle as if for life.  We at first thought Mr Miller was going onto the whales eyes, & Mr Tilson exclaimed impatiently at the apparent blundering of the 2nd mate.  Soon, however, the boat rounded in astern of the whale, & then began slowly to draw near his hump.  We were but a short distance off, & excited at the sight, all stood up to watch the chase.  How slow that boat seemed to move!  The whale kept on blowing, but he had now been up some time; we feared that every blow would be the last one, & that the whale would sound.  The boat appeared to crawl like a snail, & yet slowly it drew along side the crooked hump, & then the bows appeared forward of the hump.  & then an instant more, & old Ellis drawing back as the boats bows were not two fathoms from the whale, let first one iron fly, & then snatching up his second buried it chock up to the hitches in the whales back.  “Hurrah, he’s fast,” we shouted, & then we saw the whale raise his hump, the two irons sticking fast, & white water a moment before he sounded.  I had been breathless almost till I saw Ellis shove in his irons, & then I shouted from pure joy.  We now toke down our sail & mast, got out our oars, & pulled for Mr Millers boat.  The bow boat came up as we did, & we stationed ourselves on either bow of the waist boat, ready for the whale when he came up.  The mate lay on his oars a little outside of us.  The waist boat had run but little, & it seemed that the whale was sounding deep, for the line ran straight down from the bows into the water.  Our disappointment may be imagined, as we saw Mr Miller haul in his line slowly, that was now slack, & the two iron poles finally rise under his bows.  The whale was loose.  Both irons had drawn after about 150 fathoms of line had been taken out from the large tub.  We had little time to exchange our mutual chagrin, for the whale appeared half a mile to leeward, heading as before N. N. W., still undiverted from his course.  We all set sail in pursuit.  Twice the whale rose, spouted for a while, & then went down.  The sun was now low in the heavens & the night breeze began to freshen over the darkening sea.  The 3rd time the whale rose, both the mate & 2nd mate, who had gained on the whale at every rising, dashed at him. but the mate seeing Mr Goland had the best chance, kept back while Mr G went on.  Again we had the excitement of watching a boat till it made fast.  The whale embreathed, still spouted low & regularly on his unvarying course.  Mr Goland laid his boat along side the whales hump till both whale & boat were in the same foam & yeasty water.  Manuel stood up, & as the boat dashed close to the big hump, he gave the whale his first iron close by the jagged holes from which Ellis’s irons had drawn.  The boat rooled as he caught up the iron & darted it.  The whale started as the first iron struck him, raising his flukes & bringing them down within a foot of Manuels head, splashed water all over him, & so blinded him that he could hardly see to throw his second iron.  However the iron stuck, & went in. For a moment the whale lashed the water with his flukes & would have stove the boat had not Mr Goland swept her off with his steering oar.  But as we dashed on to make fast, the whale went down, raising his terrible flukes as he sounded.  He appeared again in a moment, shoving suddenly out from the sea first his under jaw, then his long square built head, an immense affair brownish & spotted with gray, & began slowly to open & close his jaws, the under jaw from 16 to 17 feet in length, shutting into the upper & immovable jaw, disclosing his white mouth & the great sockets into which his teeth fitted with a force that could have crushed any one of us or the boats like an egg shell.  20 feet from the sea rose this tower of mottled blubber, white jaws & glistening teeth, & then sunk back, & was instantly succeeded by the broad flukes flung high above the sea & waving to & fro as if the immense owner was either in great pain or rage.  These, too, disappeared in foam, & as the whale sounded, Mr Goland perceived to his intense mortification that the whale was again loose.  Both of Manuels irons had also drawn.  The whale rose again close to the waist boat & dashed by its bows so close that Ellis might have made fast again.  But he was sitting down, not expecting the whale so soon.  Away went our game, now fairly roused, dead to windward.  We saw some time after his spout about a mile to windward, & this was the last of him.  We saw him no more.  It was useless to follow him.  It was now blowing stiffly, there was a heavy swell on, & night was closing about us, so we reluctantly gave up the pursuit.  What a disappointment.   An enormous prize had fairly slipped through our fingers.  That fellow carried 120 bbls of sperm oil in his jacket, if not more, for his blubber had that heavy corrugated appearance that denotes very fat & rich substance, & his head alone would have made 50 bbls.  We now set out for the ship, pulling to windward.  We soon made out the ships upper sails as she came down before the strong wind under all sail.  I had not expected to reach the ship that night, but all safely got aboard by 7 1/2, the men so tired by incessant work all day that they staggered like drunken men when the reached the ships deck.  The Old Man & woman were of course disappointed.  So were all hands.  4 irons had drawn, a very unusual thing, one toggeled, two one flued & one single flued iron had severally drawn from that whale, we supposed because the blubber was too rich & soft to hold against the strain of the line & the whales violent movements.  Thus ended our chase of Massafuera Jack.                                                                                                                     

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My Visit to Paita Peru – South America in Barke Atkins Adams – Cap Wilson, Sept 1859.

Tuesday Sept 13th 1859. 

Blowing a stiff gale, very cold all day, made the town about 4 1/2 P. M.  Set f. t gsl., sent men from mast heads, stood in going about 10 knots.  Everything on a strain, old barke heeling & rushing along as she never did before, walking to windward, bound to get in, ship throwing water & going like mad.  Appearance of high sandy barren coast & town in bight of the shore – ships in harbor – I watching them to see what chance I should have to get away – two war steamers in – one whaler – ship dragging anchor at first & finally holding outside of every craft in the harbor, giving her 55 fathoms.  Evening gun & bells.  Capt of port & health doctor coming aboard – watch washing & getting ready to go ashore in morning – got to our anchorage just about dark, I standing watch.  Wednesday

Sept 14th 1859. 

Starboard watch went ashore on liberty – broke out slop chest for shoes – $2.00 liberty money – Dutchman in galley – Mary Ann went out – we doing nothing but a little painting – getting letters – describe scene – as Cap came aboard with his pockets stuffed with letters – I getting about 10 letters – what pleasure, exchanging news.  Capt paid $8.00 for the package.  Heavy wind off shore in afternoon – couldnt row against it – Pulled Old Man & woman ashore – Town – its appearance – number of jackass brigs – news of R. Choates death & Judge Parsons death – war in Europe – gamm with old woman in cabin – mince pie. 

Thursday Sept 15th 1859. 

In morning our boat going after liberty men in the gray of the morning – all mustered on pier, except F. P., F. W. & C. C.  Appearance of liberty men – disappointment.  Mate setting all hands immediately to washing off – our watch told to get ready to go ashore – getting ready & going ashore.  Mitchell in back room at store counting out $2.00 apiece, & a man watching us closely, a spy on us all day – Tom not going ashore for want of clothes – heard that runaways were caught – crusing about with steward – playing tenpins – Giffords Alley & John Morris saloon – gaudily dressed old woman strutting along with prayer book & a parasol, followed by several young girls, one pretty even beautiful girl with fair complexion, black eyes with a dark silk shawl drawn over her head – fine contrast &c.  Mate coming ashore – crusing about – appearance of houses & narrow streets – & costumes & faces.  Going to calaboose & seeing young Wallace – his appearance & story – the calaboose & plaza – the church – jackasses & market – iron warehouse – custom house – going up to main top – describe scene – One armed Bill – & chap wanting to tow me away – would have sold me for an ounce – Happy drunk – The Captain refusing to give me my discharge & his reasons – officers from man o war steamer in undress lounging about – guns on the pier – appearance of everything – buzzards & pigs – getting my dinner at an obstinate old Peruvians house – my resolution & success – good dinner – meeting the Cholo at main top – his attempts to get me to run away – & his temptations trying to go abroad – no boat from the ship.  Mates impatience – my gamm with him on pier – steward meantime drunk – about 9 mate & I leaving steward on pier, went to John Morris, where we engaged a boat, a little pisco (?) – my cigars & mate – Shanghai & mate – 5 of us going off to ship for $3.00 – mates talk – particulars about this – mates gamm with me on quarter deck – turning in. 

Friday Sept 16th 1859. 

Rest of our watch came off in morning – no more liberty for foreward hands – Capt calling all hands aft & telling us about our liberty – describe his speech & manner – officers & boatsteerers of starboard watch going ashore – Cholo women aboard – race between them in canoes – steamer came in & a whaler – fine appearance of war steamer going out – writing 15 pages of letters for my ship mates – love letters & all – Curly spoiling our liberty – I & Dutchman standing first two watches – cold & blowing hard this P. M. 

Saturday Sept 17th 1859. 

Pulling officers & boatsteerers ashore on liberty – man o war boat carrying off shipwrites &c to a brig hove down for repairs – English chap shipped for 6 months – kept 17 {he afterwards ran away & found the old Virginia} Portuguese going to ship – Joe refusing – Consuls proceeding – threatening to put Joe in calaboose if he didnt ship – finally all shipped for the cruse at 130th lay. 

Sunday Sept 18th 1859. 

Writing home today – all hands growling about liberty – & officers & boatsteerers going ashore – our dirty cook to be kept for the next cruse – French man o war steamer & Peruvian brig & a Chillian barke came in – also the Montgomery – different flags flying from all the sail in port – describe the harbor – man o war as she came in heaving lead & men singing – barke with but six men furling sail alongside but farther in – Cap of port going aboard – my desire to be aboard & disgust at the prospects of the next cruse. 

Monday Sept 19th 1859. 

Writing letters home – mate gamming with me – going ashore in afternoon – scene ashore – Beach Combers drunk – Millers hotel & fancy bed – old Tufts – Curly & Jack fighting Gifford – Miller willing to fight Montgomerys 2nd mate – Old Man coming up & separating them – 3 Chillian runaways from brig came off. 

Tuesday Sept 20th 1859. 

Rafted ashore our spars – housing them – beach & breakers – women among them in canoes – women coming for water

to the beach & wading in the surf- scene in harbor – fine day – appearance of vessels – divers – buzzards roosting on old sunken hulk – balsa rafts – Muskato (?) fleet – man o war steamer coming in from Guyaquil – onions taken aboard – visit from man o war officers – writing home – report that runaways were taken in the country. 

Wednesday Sept 21st 1859.

Man o war steamer came in last night with a prize brig – our 3 Chillians recognizing her as the steamer from which they ran away – their alarm & readiness to stow themselves away – Mail steamer coming in in fine style – English flag floating – iron boat – Brig bound out under topsails – My reflections thereat – bound for Guyaquil – Old Man coming off with but one letter & that for the mate – boat load of onions – painting boats – Heard that runaways were taken & expected tonight in town – my desire to get some paper – 2nd mate going & stopping ashore alone last night – His impudence – Mary Wilder came in like a race horse & anchored far in – We still the outermost vessel – Mail steamer going out again – close by us bound for Callao – washed off this morning – growling for liberty – One ship burnt here once on some account – Portugee always called to man the boats. 

Thursday Sept 22nd 1859. 

Washed off early – I trying to raise money for paper – asking Cap. 3 times.  Shanghai anxious also, asking to go ashore in boat – trading my sleeve buttons for paper, ink, & matches – Mr Hillmans kindness – & the infamous Seabury – the branding skipper of the Sappho – carrying tobacco & soap ashore – going aboard – Capitania men (?) alongside & our new cook & chillian’s alarm – hiding them selves – Pulling Old Man & woman ashore – M. Joe & I going up to calaboose & seeing runaways – Frank P. very sick lying uncared for on an old board platform – his appearance – darkie & his wife – miserable place for a sick man – no one would attend to him – The other two in good spirits & resolved not to be put in irons – their story – desert – Purde (?) – English planter – coming back attended by two vigilante’s – would have escaped but for sick Frank – Going to Morris & giving him my gold ring to attend to Frank & send him a doctor – Cap sending Frank aboard with us – Poor fellow – his reception kind by the mate – Keys of the medicine chest – F. sent to his bunk returning with Portugee crew – hard pull against wind – going to calaboose – going into church with Joe – M not going in – appearance of church – statues – decorations – bands of red & white – pillars – holy water in immense shells – women decorating two statues of Virgin Mary & Some Saint – raised dais – gilded altar & kind of pulpit, & statues in niches – Virgin Mary – Pope – dying savior & other statues – broken plaster – book on altar – “Hic est enim corpus meum” weeping statue in black a “Mater dolorosa” – candles & candle sticks – & corpse lying underneath of a young person – kind of side pulpit – & a kind of confessional – handsome & well dressed young woman & ladies kneeling before a statue & old women dressing it in satin &c – larger statue in gold base &c – I viewing all this bare headed & reverently – going in a little after – everything arranged – lanterns hanging from roof – statues resplendent in gold & glitter – carving frequent – I looking on accosted by pleasant looking man, who dipped finger in holy water & marked the symbol of his religion & [sic] my forehead & sprinkled the scented holy water over me – my acceptance of this first act of worship since I left home – Reflections thereat – women &c crossing their foreheads as they went out – & young girls kissing a small image like a doll – All this very interesting to me – Old Virginia & Wm Lee coming in – J. A. Parker laying off & on for letters – Old Man breaking his word to give us liberty when he had the runaways in the calaboose – growling thereat – Cap not a man of his word – detestable treachery to his sea weary crew – Bad reputation of whaling skippers at Paita – So says John Morris – One armed Bill coming aboard with Old Man & taking away 3 Chillian man o war men from us – & carrying them to Domingo – This wretchedly unfair – & treacherous – Men treated like cattle this side of land – good fellows – kept new cook – Man all this while stowed in our forehold – 2nd mates unfeeling remarks about Sick Frank – Cap coming down to see Frank – & rough but on the whole kind to him.  Sent him wine &c. 

Friday Sept 23rd 1859. 

4th mate came off with runaways – 4th mate a little drunk from his shore debauch – Runaways cheerful & hilarous – Their reception – Nothing said to them by Old Man – They however keeping out of his way – going to their bunks – Old Man violating his express promise about liberty – Old Mans treachery – Saturday

Sept 24th 1859. 

Old Man came aboard last night when we hoisted up boat in the waist – 5 of us stood watch for Sick Frank – my gamm with mate in the galley – He should have been left ashore – His extreme sickness {his final recovery}  This morning tripped anchor & left before a fine wind – rounding point – large ship under full sail bound in – Standing along coast & out to Sea – At breakfast man Stowed in forehold jumping through door into the forecastle – Stowing chain & getting anchor into bows – bound for a six months cruse – cold & wretched mastheads – Mate & 2nd mate choosing watches – Man stowed away coming on deck – officers laughing & talking about breaking out for more men – half watches – Thompson sick of course – put in as cook’s mate – 21 men forward – getting our boat ready – My reflections Starting as I do on this long & stormy cruse.

Visit to Tumbez – South America on Barke Atkins Adams –  1859

Went aboard Old Hector – several boats crews aboard gamming – Singing &c – heard of war in Europe – Cooks yarn about Capt Chase kicking him – Thursday – waist boat in morning towed 3 casks up river – Our boat pulling Old Man & woman to Simonte’s – Amount of pulling I did for this same old woman – Bringing back carpenter from Emily – his release from the Calaboose – carrying him to ship – orders from Old Man not to go ashore till Chips was aboard ship – getting anicou from native in canoe for boats bag of bread – landing on point – drunken fellow in surf – Catalpa’s, Hector’s crews ashore with our 2nd mates crew – Kanakkas dance in shaky old house on bamboo floor – going after rafts – describe scene – confusion among boats getting aground – noise & shouting – at length Hectors boats with 27 casks ahead – we following with 3 casks – getting ahead – Hectors aground – but all hands so drunk they didnt know it – along side & hoisting in our last casks – pulling mate up river for Old Man & woman – mates remarks about river – didnt amount to much – Simonte  & his family & daughters – his house – resort for skippers – not charging anything for his hospitality – pianos, flutes, accordeons &c all used by his daughters – his plantations &c – pulling back by moonlight – Everything quiet – crickets singing – water like a mirror – air pleasant – deep shadows in the water from the green banks – bending to our oars & sending our light craft along through the still river like an arrow – two boats gamming us – painting ship –

Friday Sept 9th 1859. 

Stowed everything off to day & cleared up decks – goat & hens came aboard from John Austin – hove overboard a lot of stale oysters – Old Man paying up in denims cotton – soap – tobacco – slush sold to Simonte @ $24.00 per bbl – Simontes son aboard from bungie – coat off & at work testing slush – Old Man sold a lot of denims &c to Uncle Snow of Catalpa – Wm Lee & Montgomery & old Rose Pool came in yesterday & another barke yesterday – Every craft except the two Peruvian brigs hoisting the glorious Americand flag at the mizzen peak – got up windlass bars & made all ready to trip anchor but Old Man & woman gone up to the city – went gamming with Miller aboard the Wm Lee – this ship twice struck by a sword fish off the Gallipagos – & in consequence leaks badly – a regular old tub – a crew of Kanakkas came aboard in evening – & meeting a Kanakka who worked for John Austin – danced about him like so many wild devils to make him understand their lingo – he bewildered – their eagerness for tobacco – eating it like a rare delicacy – their dance on deck fantastically wild – violent & grotesque – describe it & our crew watching them. 

Saturday Sept 10th 1859.  

Old Man & woman went up early to Simontes – we aboard scrubbing off – then nothing to do but take in a few bbls of slush from J. Meigs to carry to Paita – boat returning about 2 P. M – when we got two terrapin one from Catalpa & one from Montgomery – also a wild dog Chathum (?)- from the Lancer – caught from Chathum (?) Island – fun catching him – waited for tide to turn – then tripped anchor – & setting everything slowly put out to sea, passing close astern to the old Dominga & Wm Lee & abreast of the old familiar Virginia that had just come under new paint – Retreating shore – & fleet – & scenery the ships black hulls looming above the low shingly shore & foliage – fine evening – catted & fished both anchors – but didn’t stow the chains but left them shackled – stood along shore by short tacks all night – beautiful night – fine sailing though rather calm – Bound for Paita –

Tuesday 13th. 

Blowing hard all night – single reefed topsails – tacked every four hours – Paita head (?) on lee beam – cold watches – coldest mast head I ever had – hump backs breaching –

Visit to Tumbez in Barke Atkins Adams – Peru – S. A

Sept 2nd 1859 –

Pulled Old Man & woman to Simontes – describe river – pelicans – buzzards – alligators – river winding – strange foliage – cocoa nut trees & plantain groves – sugar cane &c – cockroach river – Domingo’s – Simontes – Skippers ashore – old woman going up to house – we wandering about – shaking off lemons – meeting Whitton from the old Chili & his story – Meeting old Charley Wallace – his yarn – he told me I had better go to Guyaquil – our boat returning.  Easy pull – meeting 3 boats from Montgomery towing a raft of casks – at rivers mouth – just holding their own – hard pulling against the current & tides – couldnt stop to help – bound to ship with letter for young Simonte.  2nd mate green at the business – left our fellows working hard – & pulled away – crossing the breakers on the bar – watching pelicans – pulled to our ship – mate damning Simonte – pulled to Mary Ann & then to a bungie where we found young Simonte – his politeness & appearance – then set sail Johnny loosing an oar – pulled to ship & got an oar & two fresh hands – & then pulled hard till we overtook our boats far up the river – 3rd mate leading & showing 2nd mate – hard pulling – long lines of empty casks – strong current & light wind – awakening the echoes with shanties – at last hove to just below Domingos – pulling into a bight of the bank & making raft fast – then the bow boat returned to the ship – aquadente passed round – filling casks – knocking out bungs & rent (?) spiles & letting casks fill themselves – water muddy – curious scene – 2nd & 3rd mates, at last our boat set sail & pulled away & sailed again to Simontes – beautiful sail up the quiet romantic river – enjoying ourselves as the boat shot along before a light breeze – watching banks scenery &c – 2nd mates boat remaining by raft – no dinner – all hungry – reaching Simontes – skipper there – wait there an hour – Skippers & wives at the house – describe its tiles – piazza – awnings – sound of piano, arches & flag staff – bell, large game cocks – garden – cocoa nut trees – beans – sugar house – Frank & I exploring – bungies – woman bathing & diving & dressing before us – rather funny her dress – shawls & hats worn gracefully by the women – filling my pockets with limes – pulling back – overtaking 2nd mate towing the filled raft with one boat & anchoring raft to bank 1 1/2 miles from Domingo’s, & leaving it over night on account of tide.  Old woman wanting us to race with 2nd mate – after our great fatigue & hunger – pulling over bar & aboard & getting supper – skipper having fine time – I pulled 25 miles today.  In evening gammers from 3 ships aboard – Portugee noisy – gammers from Montgomery, Sacramento, Mary Ann & Chili.  Lancer came in today & anchored by us. 

Saturday Sept 3rd 1859. 

All hands called by day light & getting breakfast – lowered 3 boats to tow down raft.  I pulled boatsteerers oar in starboard boat.  pulling up the river no water in the boat – pleasant pull – saw an aligator – pulled about a mile when we came to the raft where we made fast.  3rd mate leading, Johnny’s boat next & 2nd mates fast to the raft – pulled away – tide going out – but high water – appearance of the boats & raft – met the Sacramento’s boats sailing up river for their raft – & a boats crew from Montgomery going up to the town for liberty – pulling away & shouting out our shanties – “Bully in the Alley””Ha-Ha I’m bound away” “on the wild Missouri” “Santa Anna” &c. startling the drowsy birds just awakening from sleep – & causing an aligator or two to plunge heavily into the still waters of the river – slowly pulling down till we got to rivers mouth & got into rough water – grounding raft once on a sunken snag – pulling to windward to cross bar – 3rd mate directing – then lay off for the ship – raft grounding – Scene – surf rooling about the boats look nut shells – difficulty between 2nd & 3rd mates, 3rd mate thinking he knew didnt obey 2nd mate quick enough & rather gave than took orders.  2nd mate furious & damning 3rd mate – shaking fist at him – “I aint at sea where I was four months ago” & gave the fighting word.  3rd mate told him to come on &c, then cast of his warp & laid his boat alongside the raft & jumping out with Dutchman tried to shove off the raft – breakers washing over them – sharks around on reef or bar – very risky in Dutchman who cant swim – finding it no use 3rd mate waded about to find deep water & pointed out a place, but 2nd mate ordered him to head the boats again & keep off from the bar inshore – a few more hard words but soon all right between the two officers – we pulled away for near an hour – tide setting out – & finally got the raft off the bar – very hard pull – Sacramento boats coming off with raft & passing us – keeping inshore & singing shanties – we joining in a rival song – finally got raft alongside where by burton & fish tackles we hoisted in our 21 casks.  Bungie alongside with mangrove wood – took in 7 cords @ 8.00 per cord – piled it all on larboard side – then rooled all the water casks to the larboard side to cant ship in order to mend copper.  Mate over the side with Dutchman – wet through by the rugged water – nailing on a sheet of copper – ship not canted enough – so we slung a cask from larboard main yard arm & filling it with water swung it by a tackle clear from the water when the ship heeled enough.  Cap afraid ship would capsize – but mate said he would risk it.  Men from bungie eating dinner with us – trading for hats – wood so expensive because natives are poor wood cutters – Simonte owner & chief man.  After dinner Old Man & woman pulled to Simontes – Old woman dressed out with hoops &c going down man ropes – we then shifted wood & water & righted the ship.  Commenced to cut & stow the wood – oyster boat alongside – would let the mate have but one barrel at $1.00 per barrel – they didnt like his packing the measure – mate immediately cast off the warp & ordered them away – Cap to pay for oysters – opening oysters – tasted deliciously – large & fine but not so white & delicate as home oysters.  No gammers aboard tonight.  Mate gamming Chili.  Mary Ann sailed today, bound to Payta with a fine wind.  J. Meigs came in before wind & anchored inside & abreast us – Peruvian brig came in just at dusk, her lofty sails looking finely as she neared us, setting & dipping her colors in man o war fashion & looking like a Dutch Galliott. 

Monday Sept 5th 1859.

Yesterday scrap tub of oysters sent forward for the men.  About 9 A.M. Old Man & woman set off for Tumbez in starboard boat – rush for boat I one of the lucky ones – got stroke oar – all of us dressed up – Ensign spread over stern sheets – pulled away till we got into river – beautiful & cool morning – river smooth as a mirror – reflecting foliage, sky, tints &c. – saw a large aligator & large heron – pulled away in fine style to Samonti’s – I enjoying Old Mans racy talk to old woman passing bungies moored to river banks – stopped at Samontis while old woman went up to the house – soon shoved off again & pulled away for the town – scenery of the river increasing in beauty – long rows of cocoanut trees loaded with fruit – green & brown in all stages of ripeness – bannanas & plantain groves – Mame (?) apples & long plantations of sugar cane belonging to Simonte – this singular man & his family – scenery delightful of this beautiful river – now & then green copses & overhanging foliage showing cool recesses beneath which we saw native women & men swing lazily in hammocks slung from the trees.  One canoe with all the family aboard – an old woman pulling bow paddle – handsome sweeps & curves of the river – snags & shallow water -falling banks – town two miles above Simontes – smooth water curling before our boat from our long steady strokes – listening to racy talk of our skipper – Kanakka & nest of hornets in cocoanut tree – town in sight fleet of bungies & boats in sight anchored off the beach – natives bathing – pulled on beach & hauled high up the boat wading in water to do so.  Old Man told us to take every from the boat – oars, kegs, pins, & carry them up town to Faby AnnsWe following Old Man – shouldering oars &x – appearance of low pebbly beach & on a little higher ground the town – clustered houses built of bamboo & plastered {refer to exploring expeditions for correct description} with thatched roofs & broad eves, so that one could walk under them – large church with red tiled roof – shut up at one end of plaza – & calaboose at other end.  We following Cap into Faby Ann’s – appearance of house & rooms – short counter – swinging in hammocks – fine looking woman with flowing black hair & low cut camizaOur skipper’s peculiar salute of the buxom dame – & then ordering anicou for us – & then told us to be on hand by 3 oclock – then gave us a dollar apiece – as he said to buy us a dinner – Bot cigars – then all hands went to calaboose – meeting Charley Wallace, who spoke to our skipper about the Emily – runaway carpenter in the calaboose – going with them to calaboose – just across the plaza – vigilantes at entrance – saluted them & passed in -appearance of calaboose – vigilantes lying about or playing with Spanish cards – muskets hung up about the whitewashed walls – two or three small rooms with beds raised on slender posts above the ground – Chili’s crew all out that day – no one in but Emilys carpenter – appearance of calaboose fence or stockade – weak – insecure – carpenters story – Cap of port trying to find out who hid him, but carpenter wouldnt tell.  American Consul refusing any aid because he had deserted the flag.  Our skipper talking with Chipps & wishing him to ship for a year – crusing about with our 2nd mate & crew – 2nd mate telling us to conceal his rank & treat him like a sailor – meeting Chili’s mutinous crew – dancing at house – Montgomery’s crew on liberty – American consulate – handsome girls – some of them black as pitch – dancing with them – 2nd mate around – crusing about town & calling in at dance houses.  I spectator – saw a very pretty girl braiding her hair – offered to assist – she replying & pointing to young Cholo as her matrimone – trying to purchase his image of the virgin – Cranes & old woman’s house – several men lying there in hammocks drunk – Old Jack – his advice to me to ship on an Englishman & keep clear of American merchantmen – getting dinner at Cranes – of chicken pie made like an apple pie with sugar – baked plantains – sweet corn – potatoes &c & coffee – paid 2 reals for dinner – Cranes story – going back to calaboose – appearance of narrow streets – sidewalks & natives – no carriages – but jackasses – dusty – going back to Faby Anns – Old Man treating us – I speaking to Old Man about Harry the Dutchman from Chili – at length shoving off – Old woman coming down escorted by American Consul a young man – he fine looking, she red and coarse beside his handsome fair face – pulling back to Samonte’s about 5 oclock – retreating town, women bathing – stopped at Simonte’s a short time – above an hour – pulling back – our exertions – most of the men high – at Simonte’s all the family watching us wrestling & dancing before the house – Charley & Frank calling out – Old Man & woman laughing – Old Man never saw such pulling – quite dark – till moon rose – fine scene on this lovely South American river – stillness broken by our cries & the plash of the oars – going through the breakers & pulling aboard the ship – Charley almost in a fight with the Dutchman – very pleasant trip.  Today, Monday, Old Catalpa – Uncle Snow came in – struck down wood & water into forehold & main – I between decks, stripped to waist & attending doodle & bung – describe this – Domingas crew pulling raft ashore – George Thomas – shipped on Peruvian brig as second mate – he coming aboard – a runaway or mutineer from Chili.  Heard of the Montezuma’s loss in the gulf stream – & heard from the Dominga’s crew about loosing a man & their boats in a gale in the Stream – sails 3 boats & 3 men washed overboard – one man lost – his crys heard for half an hour – impossible to save him – all clinging to rigging to save themselves – most of our fellows gone gamming with mate – sweet potatoes & beef stew again. 

Tuesday Sept 6th 1859. 

Early this morning 3 boats pulled 10 casks up river – preceded by Domingas boats with 7 casks – pulled about a mile up river – above Dominga’s raft – left 2nd & 3rd mates to fill raft & our boat returned to ship to paint, but in about an hour pulled up again to help tow down the raft – saw our boats crew on Point – landed – appearance of houses, women, sick boy, young mother & child – anicou – Johnny making love to woman with picaninnie – 2nd mates doings – crews from Dominga & Lancer ashore – hammocks &c – waiting for high tide – 3 crews pulling of & making fast to rafts – that were moored a little above – Domingas boats leading with 7 casks – we next – then Lancer 3 boats & 22 casks – we pulling by the Dominga boats – shanties – got aground – when Domingas boats overhauled us – off again aground again – both crews passing us to our mortification – Lancers at length leading – we aground 3 times.  Domingoes aground & fighting in boat – we aground alongside them jumping overboard & finally shoving off – Lancers far ahead steadily towing their long raft – most to their ship – hard towing – at length – along side ship hoisted in water & after dinner struck it below – I attending doodle – hanging up fruit – the ship rigging & stunsail booms & yards lashed in rigging strung with pumpkins, plantains & bannanas – oysters for supper – gaming Dominga in evening – her dirty forecastle &c – fishing by moon light – oysters for bait – fish a kind of scup – took in sweet potatoes. 

Wednesday Sept 7th 1859. 

Rafted of 7 bbls of water & struck it below – sent all the wood below – scrubbed off – rafts from different ships frequent – old Hector & Dartmouth came in yesterday – quite a fleet here now – Louisiana laying off & on to get her runaway crew – got 3 of them from calaboose – took in 32 bbls of sweet potatoes.  Mate managed to get up a fuss after dinner.  Jack & Charley Curtiss talking loud about sailorizing – mate calling us to turn to – getting angry & rushing down into forecastle & collaring Jack – Cap following his example – Jack coming on deck – & crying passionately – Cap telling him to shut up & mates harangue – think there would have been no disturbance if the mate hadnt interfered – 2nd mate talking to Jack –

Visit to Coral continued from page 253 –

Saturday April 2nd 1859 –

Washed off by day light – storing cabbages around house – rainy – all hands below- drinking – singing &c – Cap sent 6 vigilante’s to catch runaways at point where 3 men slept last night.  Old Man says he will lay here or outside till he catches runaways – Blowing a stiff gale here – a norther outside – steamer with passengers & all hands lost during norther we had while making harbor- about 60 miles from where we were – breakers rooling finely – nothing to do – dull work. 

Sunday 3rd

Got up at 7 – raining hard all night – heavy norther – ship apparently dragging anchor – but by day light found she hadn’t dragged an inch – all hands below – Tom came aboard yesterday afternoon with soldiers – his adventures – Cap asking him after runaways – & ironing him & putting him down main hold – Poor Tom wet to skin – had to sleep on casks – Merry time last evening – all hands spinning yarns – now blowing tremendiously – shore white with breakers – very fine scene – ship riding with one anchor – everything secure – Tom on deck – Jack carving out a clipper hull for me – Happy Jack says this reminds him of Hurds Island – Every one hating to go on deck even for a moment – At 11 all hands called to brace yards – Cap & officers on deck – the sea in harbor very wild though broken by point – ship swinging broadside to gale from force of tide & swinging back & heeling aport from force of wind – at 2 set m. spencer, but soon brailed it up again – Heavy seas turning up sand from bottom. 

Monday 4th 

Rainy – gale abated – cook stopped in town last night – Cap gone ashore – all hands in forecastle – dull work – Johns protege came off with Muncano’s (?) – general drinking – selling clothes for liquor – Blowing a second gale – washing off in a smart rain – Hints about my Journal from Jack – conversation with “old woman” – Cap came aboard without cook. 

Tuesday 5th 

Went ashore with Cap, Goland & Tripp – bot cigars from pretty Dutch woman – blacksmith shop – bot cheese & cigarette paper from Frenchman – nothing of runaways – Umbres coming aboard with apples – my Compadre presenting me Muncano’s – trading for apples & anicou with molasses – fine & fair wind about 8 – when we tripped anchor & set everything & sailed in fine style – heaving anchor to shanties that echoed among the hills of the silent bay – natives in their ponchos standing, looking on till ship was well under way – when they took to their boats – leaving the Coral – winding along the beautiful entrance to harbor – forts &c bore out to sea – all glad to be out again – by  2 safely clear of the land – fished anchors – & braced around for leeward sent chains below – mates address to me about poor sailor – when I got into my profession to remember that the sailor often causes a great deal of harm &c – $100 or 150 out of his pocket on account of runaways – cold – shortened sail – Cap called all hands aft to reset our watches – but didnt change anything – seasick men again .  Wednesday 6th out of sight of land – spanking along N.W. by N – tremendious school of porpoises glancing in morning sun – Cap finding chests broken open – calling all hands aft & trying to find out the thieves & depriving all of us of our watch below till we would tell – mates ideas thereon – & fault in maritime law – instance of man who cut laniards to shrouds & who flogged by Cap – recovered damages afterwards from him – Excellent ideas – Cap simple & decided. 

Thursday 7th

All hands yet on deck – light winds – cold – cloudy – cold night watches Friday March 8th out six months today.  Kept all hands at work yesterday in rigging & laying up old yarns – We turn out slowly & spend 2/3 of night watches below sleeping on chests – wind hauled to northard with clouds & every appearance of a norther – Blowing a norther – under reduced sail – rainy – about 10 this A.M Old Man called all hands aft & inquired if we had made up our minds to know anything about those chests – we didnt – when we were sent below – Old Man saying he would know before voyage was up – Attributed this to intercession of “old woman” – Mate getting in his word – he knows who pried open &c & who interfered – reduced sail to close reef storm sail – evening clear – again under sail – Carpenters red shirt found behind chest – Frank Willey or Grumbler mad at mates suspicion. 

Saturday 9th   

Fair wind on quarter, spanking along finely – Ho for Juan – very little to do – balling spun yarns – Tom got hoisted last night from a chest – tried it twice on me but couldn’t come it – Lay too from 11 till 5 this A. M

Sunday 10th

Came up with Juan by evening & passed to leeward & lay too till Monday morning when we set all sail for the island – fine & wild outline of this celebrated island – Mem:  Shanghai ordered below by “Old Man” as he was drunk – “Thats righ Cap – send em down one by one” replied S – just as he was descending the steps – {Miller – By G- I’m Jacks backer – I’l fight you or any other man” – “You shant fight Mr. M – so long as I am aboard this ship.”

My visit to Coral port of Valdivia in Barke Atkins Adams –

March 25th 1859.

                   taken & transferred from my notebook —

Breeze sprung up – broken by bluff – romantic entrance to harbor – caves covered with arching foliage – trees – grass platts – birds – shore sounds – calm water – beautiful & romantic sail – ship gliding through the still water, her topsails just filled by sea breeze – rounded by fort – rocks covered with birds – boats coming along side – neat appearance of men & boats – officer in gold lace coming aboard – & conning ship – “Gobernacion maritima.” ­  brig already at anchor – all sails furled – & colors flying the tricolor of chili – we anchored near town then by watches furled everything – snug furls – Entrance into the romantic bay – hills surrounding – luxuriant verdure – Cap going ashore with 3 hands – my disappointment – coopering water casks immediately & 24 casks overboard – 2 boats towing them ashore – scene ashore with natives & anicou – we aboard sending aloft burton & fish tackles – Seals playing in water – very curious – boat coming along side at dusk – Cap curious – they replyed they were on the lookout &c – down in forecastle trading &c – Frank & my watch – 2nd mate coming aboard & looking after shoe & bottle – very funny incident – still night – dogs barking – lights gleaming &c. 

Saturday March 27th 

Friday water boats went ashore – our boat alongside washing off – “hombres” coming aboard ship at night – Jack & my shawl – hoisting in casks – boats coming off all hands drunk – Miller so drunk he could hardly steer – & hoarse from singing – all hands singing – natives on deck helping – funny scene – Frank drunk – I going ashore in water boat – appearance of shore – & coming aboard in a bowline – Cap lecturing all hands about our meat – all hands listening in waist – “suck your thumbs damn clean &c” – Today hoisting & lowering water casks – many drunk – mate seizing anicou – fresh meat & potatoes – milk – ducks &c – washed off – I paying 10 royals for aquadente . 

Sunday 28th 

Steamer came in last night while Frank & I were on watch – describe her coming up &c – boats going ashore this A. M – for 2 & 3rd mates – all hands preparing to go ashore – Starboard watch gone ashore in long togs – we pulling them ashore – fine day – sailing & sealing in the beautiful landlocked bay – “Old Mans” fancy dinner – hoisting up Spanish beauties in our chair cover with American flag – one fat beauty – took four of us to hoist her in – “Old Chilalian smuggling anicou into forecastle in a basket of apples – steward in long togs with beaver – Adam & I pulling 2nd mate ashore in evening – going to Shingano – all drunk more or less – Jack dancing – describe –

Monday 29th

All hands called before breakfast – but after breakfast our watch ordered to get ready to go ashore – boys brushing up &c – Old Man called us aft & gave us “un peso” apiece – singing as S. watch pulled us ashore – “Good bye my lover” &c Shanghai & I playing billiards in “Hotel Union” & eating good dinner like gentlemen – Chipps dead drunk – ditto Jack – In afternoon crusing about – beautiful scenery – romantic hills & valleys – lovely views & scenery – Shingano at Cap of Port’s House – Jack going in & wanting to fight Cap of Port – Old Man high – Mr Goland, Manuel, John & I dancing before “old man & woman” at the Frenchmans – G quite drunk – old woman with both eyes open – R. Eggs not to be seen – G & M coming aboard drunk – I felt for a single day like a gentleman – though I was occasionally reminded that I was only a sailor – Profuse drinking – drinking every where – visit to Poor Antoine who was carried ashore almost dying – Cook & I promised to send him a blanket – I went aboard sober with Old Man & woman – rest staid ashore all night –

Tuesday 30th —

But 3 men came off this morning – 7 left – Cap mad – $200 per head – oil enough to catch them – Mate says it is all “damn nonsense” – S. watch lost their liberty – Miller mad & speaking about thrashing our watch – Cap going to alter lays & give liberty every day – but all up now – Jack turned in drunk – built potato pen in f. hold – English boy from steamer – Runaways seen by an old woman going over the hills – Thompson in Galley – “Old Man” nailed down runaways chests {afterwards broken open} – rafted off 5 casks of water – painting ship under water ways – my oil clothes stolen –

Wednesday 31st

Lonely anchor watch last night – Portugee brot aboard by soldiers – Cap put them in round house – took in 4500 lbs of potatoes from Valdivia – weighing all hands – “Old Man” treating me & Adam who pulled him ashore – painting boats – pitching cuets (?) – Blowing a norther outside – general grumbling at loss of liberty. 

Thursday April 1st

Took in lot of potatoes – “Old Man” gone after runaways – officers cant go ashore – set up martingale – made ready for tripping anchor – brig going out under royals & in thick fog – paid Frenchman for meat &c – Old Man returning without runaways – cold day – officers mad because they couldnt go ashore –

Friday 2nd

Took in cabbages & turnips – Sold Ollendorf (?) to a Dutchman – schoolmaster – his eagerness &c – bought cheese – my shawl & Miller – this funny – Jack drunk – sailed with Miller &c – Things stolen – Jack  seeing Portugee preparing to leave at night – report that runaways have been caught – H. Jack giving a shirt for a bottle of anicou to treat all hands – boat coming round point – all watching her for runaways – but none seen – Cap going instantly ashore – all hands more or less drunk – nothing to do – sucking eggs – H. Jack & Martin fighting – I separated them, with others, but mate coming down & pointing Jack on deck, Miller & mate quarreling – Miller a little drunk taking Jacks part – willing to fight for him – mate telling him he shouldnt fight &c – Miller raving & swearing – Cap trying to separate them “for shame Mr Miller &c” – Mates harangue to us – Cap after hauling Jack about &c – taking Miller below into cabin – Old woman around – Jack willing to fight all the Portugee – Miller about stealing Portugees duff – general excitement – Natives looking on astonished – Natives coming off constantly with milk – rum smuggled from mate – “who didnt care” he said about men getting drunk ashore for he could take care them when they came aboard – but if liquor was given them aboard they would be drunk all the while” & so it was – plenty of liquor in forecastle.  My first watch with Frank – remarkable phosphorescence in the water – ship surrounded by gleaming lights – fish seen swimming in glancing light under water – the most romantic & remarkable scene I have witnessed – water still save where the tide rippled in brilliance about our bows & chains – winds whist – lights gleaming from shore with long trails in the water – custom house boat heard – secretly rowing about ship – anchor chains brilliant to keel – I fishing – Jack grumbling – waters gleaming – Cap walking deck – solemn stillness –

My visit to St Jago and Brava – Cape De Verds …

                                    transcribed from my note book

The night after making St Jago lay too – next morn ran down – doubled west cape – neared it – saw its back ground of peaks – spoke to Cap when at wheel during night watch about going ashore – jumped into Cap’s boat when lowered – rowed away from ship – I the only green hand – M. John Antoine Johnny Goland & Cap in boat – I caught but two crabs with my long 17 boat oar – neared the shore & saw the black volcanic rocks lining the jagged homely coast – passed under stern of a brig and inquired where to land – saw boats lying too just outside the surf – rowed up – just outside the surf – when I saw 3 or 4 black half dressed fellows crying out and flinging their arms about – one came off through the surf & took ships papers from Cap – carried them to C. House officer who hailed “where from,” “what name” &c – we then pulled on a big rooler and jumping out to our waists hauled the boat & Cap high up on the beach – immediately surrounded by natives – describe landing – jumping out &c – Justin – burly black – picking me out – describe their eagerness to trade – their desire for tobacco – the red tile covered buildings & sheds – the custom house – the town, the fort – the man & donkey – the natives – the water casks – the women drinking aquadente – trading for fruit with out any tobacco – jackknife for a bottle of aquadente – costumes of women – Justin mad & lecturing me because I traded for some aquadente with old woman – my  delight at all this – cocoa nut trees straggling here & there – bannana grove – my engaging a monkey – Cap came down from town surrounded by natives – shoving off through the surf – stopping & landing Cap on a Boston brig – my meeting a Boston man in mate of brig – his kindness & open heartedness – filled away our boat sail till ship rounded point – went aboard – kept off & on till afternoon when we stood in again & M & I loaded with tobacco, knives, razors, sheath &c from ship mates again pulled Cap ashore – landed Mr Hamilton on a brig – went ashore with brigs supercargo – a flush important boasting fellow – fearing yellow fever did not go up to town – Justin ready on the beach, though he thought ship had gone off – M & I busy trading – natives crowding around in exceedingly fancy costumes – naked boys playing in the surf – women coming down from the town – several young & pretty girls – Custom house officer ordering me to carry my tobacco to custom house – I shouldering my bag & marching to Custom house – describe it – with its tiled roof – left M in the boat got my monkey & tied in in the stern sheets – Justin carrying me to the garden a lovely spot – describe the young girls washing at the fountain in the garden – the tropical trees & fruit – its beauty – walking under shade & Justin with the air of a nabob – Justin working hard – woman owner of garden – town above garden – lizzards &c – my feelings at novelty &c Saw cap coming down – went back to custom house – where I distributed my tobacco, bottle of aquadente &c – shoved off through surf – water half filling boat – I wading back for bag of fruit – going aboard – Cap not taking any one from fear of fever – filling away & standing for Bravo – next day almost calm – that night M & I taking jackass cheese – fruit – cocoanuts bannannas &c & drinking aquadente by moonlight – while on lookout – struck trades about 20 or 18 – next day lowered & got a black fish – describe this – Saturday – on larboard tack under all sail – Dutch trader astern under full sail – another sail astern.  Bad bread, hard to eat – eating fruit – nearly calm – Brava & Fogo in sight – about 10 am black fished raised – excitement – want of oil – lowered 3 boats – I in 3rd mates boat – all paddled to the fish – down they went – we separated – when they came up to windward pulled for them – baffled us for a long time – at last mates steerer struck an algerine (?) – & a little after struck a large black fish – could see the mate passing to the bow of the boat that was spinning around after the wounded fish – & then make a quick dart with an iron & then repeated plunges with a lance – could see the flurry – we pulled by the mate & could see the dying fish floundering in bloody water – we pulled about – several times near – but no dart – returned to ship where mate had already towed his fish – fish hoisted in board – its appearance – cutting in scene – bloody decks &c – I treading about gingerly – Thompson cut in leg by mates spade – leaning the blubber & heaving carcass overboard – I disgusted with the nasty work – left the blubber to rot in the deck tub & two barrels – washed off –

Sunday November 14th 1858. 

Masthead my first one – raised porpoises – fine sunset – two ships on either beam – growling about bad grub – read Milton on deck –

Monday 15th

Next day after taking blackfish stood in for Brava – the high volcanic peak of Fogo off lee bow – when within apparently a short distance of Brava lowered with same crew in Captains boat – pulled stroke – very long pull – Jack Marlinspikes wheeling about us – Brava seemed never to get nearer – pulled without a pause for over 15 miles against wind & tide – ship hull down before we made the island – pulled along half the island – Describe appearance of the island – potatoe patches seen high up – considerable verdure – natives running – boats fishing – Captain in despair at not making the town – pulled into a cove – describe it – natives on beach – women & watermelons & fruit – not daring to sell – beached the boat – Cap could obtain no men or fruit – run out again – my excessive thirst – hailed a fishing boat – old man offering to conduct us up the coast a little to obtain some boys – wouldnt let Cap have a goat – would be put in calaboose – Cap told him to go ahead – he pulling among the rocks, we outside – Splendid breakers & natural formations – boat pulled at length right for breakers – we followed – women & boys beckoning us not to go there – a rock jutting out – boys on rock.  Old man talking to them – Cap picking out, boys jumping from the rocks & swimming “au naturel” to the boat – five of them – we hauling them in – woman bidding them goodbye – shouting & flinging out her arms – her pathos – boys answering – old man telling Cap to take good care of the boys & asking his name – bidding him stand right away from shore – Cap giving him tobacco – red fish in boat – eating green watermelons – nothing ever more delicious to a thirsty man – Cap sailing for ship – but hailing a boat is directed to round a point to obtain a goat – we pulled away – boys fishing on point – we surprised them – pulled in – describe the cove – boy running over the cliffs to speak to Manuels friends – pulled for opposite side of the romantic wild cove – beached the boat – my thirst – Manuel leading up a ravine – I followed bare foot – my suffering on bard rocks & burning sands – Kept on far behind  – Suffering in my blistering feet but not equal to my thirst – half way up – went into a little house – describe it & the ravines – water trickling down the centre – pretty girls giving the water from a calabash – ripe figs – following on – Meeting Manuel with some women – I pressed by & on – sweat running off me – at last jumped up a green bank & a little further found Cap &c sitting under a tamarisk tree.  I threw myself down – refreshing little paradise after my toil – bannana grove – sugar cane &c – birds singing – my delight – women coming up with Manuel – describe pretty one with laced camiza – a very nut brown maid – a veritable Maid Marian – my bold looks – her modest & proud dignity – old woman & pretty one pointing to my burnt feet – my giving them tobacco – Cap making bargain for men fruit &c M talking about seeing his friends – Cap shaking hands with woman – my envy & wishing to do the same – Antoine coquetting with girls – the descent – describe the surrounding heights – Entering house again – old woman spinning cotton on old fashioned reel – giving her & two pretty girls tobacco – their grateful look curious roof – modest looks & bright eyes of the girls – bidding them goodbye by looks – Cap picking out five new hands & a boy – leaving the first boys ashore without any gifts to find their way back as they best could – their disappointment.  The whole thing contrary to the laws of the port, a kind of smuggling in men – reflections on this conduct – pulling off – heavy swell – long pull – retreating shore – sucking sugar cane to remind me of the dusky beauty under the tamarisk tree – pulling aboard with our men – their appearance – breaking out old bread for trading – Portugee asking me for tobacco for friends ashore – giving him twelve heads – Cap & 2nd mates boats going ashore after dark – for fruit &c – I not going.  Two Portugee going in Cap’s boat – our watch – sleepy &c – boats returning about one oclock bringing a goat & kid – 4 hogs a dozen hens & chickens & several hundred oranges – Cap doing so to evade the law – filling away for the southward – One of the Portugee running away with my tobacco – Manuel saw his friends – gave his sister my handkerchief – brought of with him a delicious musk melon – boats didnt go ashore – but lay too just outside the surf – very long pull – glad I didnt go – Portugee in my bunk – their condition for next few weeks – sea sick & unprovided for – a very pleasant & exciting visit for me – next day trying out black fish blubber – describe this.

Officers & Crew of Atkins Adams[7]

Cap.                       Wm. Wilson

1st Mate                James Folger                Nantucket

2nd Mate              Thomas Miller             New Bedford

3rd Mate               Chas. L. Goland           Greenfield      

4th Mate                Tilson                            cruiser from “Merry Widder”

Boatsteerers          James Ellis                   Lexington

                                 Jerome P Tripp           Westport

                                 John Wilson                 Albany –

Steward                  John Hancock              Bath Me {Steward}

Cook                        Jackson Williams        Salem – alias – Doctor – ran away

Cooper                    John Antoine[8]     Fayal

Carpenter               Wm H. Wheeler            Taunton – Chipps {carpenter} ran away

Foremast Hands

                                  Ephraim Thompson     N. Bedford -{farming, laborer} ran away

                                  Wm. A. Abbe                  Boston – {law student}

                                  Thomas Cunningham   Lowell – Irishman {factory boy} ran away

                                  Alonzo Parkworth          Rochester N.. Y. – Raw Eggs {low boy} ran away

                                  A. J. Willy                        Brookfield – Growler & Grumbler {shoemaker} ran away

                                  Chas. Curtis                     Stoneham – {shoe maker} ran away

John Tookey[9]              Manchester N. H. – Curly {former barkeeper in Ann St.} ran away

M. R. Stevens             Waterville Me – Shanghai, Uncle Dudley {sporting character} ran away

                                    T. B. Pillsbury                 Waterville Me – {Farmer’s son}

Andrew Kimback       Leroy N. Y. – Allegany & H. Jack {elephant hunter} ran away

                                    John Hewes                      Buffalo – “Johnny come lately” – Jack Marlinspike

                                    Adam Barby                      Rochester town N. Y. {Dutchman}

                                    Antonio Hareir                 Fayal – Portugee, left at Coral sick

                                    Manuel Veager                 Brava – Portugee

                                    John                                    Brava – Taylor – Portugee

                                    John                                    Brava – Santa Anna – Miss Morse

                                    Mingis                                 Brava

                                    Charley                                Brava

                                    Joe                                       Brava

               Cabin boy        Andrew

Crusers from Paita

                        Harry O’Linton         England – “chips”

                        Joe                               Talcahuano

                        Manuel                        Brava – “Domingo” “Bravo”

                        Ramont                        “Chili”

                        Pasqual                        Valdivia = “Slush” – “Doctor” – “Cuisinor”


Articles taken from Slop Chest         {$1.00 Liberty money at Coral

                        1 pair of suspenders –                          {$2.00     “           “           “  Paita

                        2 pounds of tobacco                           {$1.00 Given me by Cap. at Tumbez

                        1 jack knife

                        1 doz pipes

                        1 straw hat

                        2 pounds tobacco

                        1 pair low quarter shoes at Payta

                        do do   do    do        do   at sea

                        1 fancy piratical woven cap –              Sept 28th 1859

                        1 pair thick ships drawers

                        1 new tin pan

                        1 dozen pipes

                        2 pounds tobacco

                        1 straw hat –                Oct 20th 1859

                        2 pounds of tobacco   Nov 30th 1859

                        2 doz pipes                  Dec 22nd 1859

          Books I have read during this voyage – to Nov 26/59.

Pauldings Comedys
Fugitive of the Jura &c – from the German
Western Scenes
1 vol of Exploring Expedition –
History of the Pachidermes – by Sir Hans Sloan
Arctic Voyages
1 vol. of Travelling Bachelor
Maury’s Sailing Directions
“Not so bad as we Seem” by Bulwer
About 20 Littles Living Ages
The Green Hand –
Jane Eyre – twice
Tryall of King Charles &c – printed 1660
Paradise Lost & Regained critically
Last of the Mohicans
Most of Shakespeares Plays –
The Excursion
Lay of the Last Minstrel, Marmion, & Lady of the Lake
Falconers Shipwreck –
A good deal of Coleridge, Montgomery, Rogers, Sir Wm Jones, Bowles &c-
Navigations from Plane sailing through to Lunars – Both Methods of Lunars
2nd Volume of Morris Eastern Tour
2 1/2 volumes of Rollin (?) Ancient History
Grace Leeby Julia Kavanagh
Tales of a Grandfather – Scottish – History – lore
Essays from London times twice critically –
Tom Jones –
Considerable Astronomy – Arithmetic – Grammars &c
Pickwick Papers –
Essays of Elia & Leigh Hunt
Uses of Astronomy by Edward Everett
Several Harpers magazines
Biography of Countess Emily Plater (?)
Advice to a young merchant

[Sketches of St. Anthony Island with some explanatory text]


volcanic all rock                      westward view of St Anthony

2200 feet above ocean

[drawing – with annotations “deep furrows like water courses; 2200 above ocean]

Prospective End.         Southward view of St Anthony

[drawing – with annotations westward End]

St Anthony.  Southward


west cape St. Jago the northwest coast – high in the center, but level towards the East & west Capes.  Very Mountainous, and extremely rugged with its bold peaks and ranges, very romantic in its appearance.  Here and there a table land yellow in the sun.

blank page

Rooling down to Old Mowhee

Once more we are waved by the norther gales & bounding oer the main
And now the hills of the Tropic Isles we soon shall see again
Five sluggish moons have waxed & waned since from the shore wailed we
But now are bound from the Artic ground – rooling down to Old Mowhee –

———- “ ———-

Through many a blow of frost & snow & bitter squalls of hail
Our spars were bent & canvass rent as we braced the northern gale
The horrid Isles of ice cut tiles that deck the Arctic Sea
Were many – many leagues astern as we sailed to old Mowhee

——— “ ———

Through many a gale of snow & hail – our good ship bore away
And inn the mist of the moon beams kiss – she sleeps in St. Lawrence bay
Many a day we have whiled away in the wild Kamskatcha Sea
But we’l think of that as we laugh & chat with the girls of old Mowhee

——— “ ———

An ample share of toil & care we whalemen undergo
But when its oer what care we how bitter the blast may blow
We are homeward bound – that joyful sound – and yet it may not be
But we’l think of that as we laugh & chat with the girls of old Mowhee

                Repeat last two lines of every verse –

                                                                        Wm A Abbe –
                                                                                    Barke Atkins Adams
                                                                                                Dec 25th 1859 –
                                                                        Bound for St Felix & Massafuera


[1] A novel by Julia Kavenagh

[2] These are lines 69ff. Of Canto II of the poem.  Abbe for some reason prints 69-72, 75-86, 73-74.

[3]  The correct spelling (C. W. Ashley, The Yankee Whaler, 2nd Ed. (Garden City, New York, 1942) p.132

[4]  Slang for face, usually spelled mush.

[5] The island is Wenman Island, and Abbe has it correct below.  Here he strikes through the <h> and adds a small <m>, thus producing Wenman, as he did in the heading to this page.

[6]  Pseudonym of S. G. Goodrich (1793-1860), who wrote many works for the instruction of the young.

[7]  The list given by Abbe agrees neither with that of the Atkins Adams’ log nor with the Seamen’s Register.

[8]  Spelled Antone in log and Seamens’ Register.

[9]  Called Frank in log book

[Transcribed by Bill Wyatt]

Last modified: April 4, 2013